The Digestive System: Anatomy Review

The Digestive System: Anatomy Review 1. List two main divisions of the digestive system. a. Gastrointestinal tract b. Accessory digestive 2. The four main layers of the digestive tract wall are a. Mucosa b. Submucosa c. Muscularis Externa d. Serosa 3. Label the diagram below with the four main layers you listed in question 6. 4. The mucosa includes a type of columnar __cell______that forms the inner lining of the lumen 5. Blood and lymph vessels of the mucosa are found in its _epithelial cell_ connective tissue layer. . The function of epithelial goblet cells is to secrete _substances used in digestion_. 7. _Enteroendocrine_ cells of the mucosa secrete hormones into the blood. 8. Absorption of nutrients occurs through the mucosal epithelium and into either _blood capillaries_ or _lymph vessels_ vessels. 9. Using the following diagram, label the vessels you listed in the previous question. 10. The built-in (intrinsic) network of nerve cells in the submucosa is the _submucosal plexus. 11.

The two types of movements produced by contractions of the muscularis externa are _peristalsis_and _segmentation_. 12. List the four regions of the stomach: a. _cardia_________ b. _fundus________ c. _body_________ d. _pyloric region_ 13. List the three sheets of muscle in the stomach’s muscularis externa: a. _ longitudinal muscle layer b. _ circular muscle layer c. _ oblique muscle layer 14. Label the three sheets of muscle in the stomach’s muscularis externa in the diagram below. 15.

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List, in order from the pylorus to the colon, the three regions of the small intestine: a. _duodenum b. _jejunum c. _ileum 16. From largest to smallest, list the three modifications of the small intestine’s inner wall that function to increase surface area: a. _plicae circulares b. _villa c. _microvilla 17. Label two of the modifications of the intestine to increase surface area in the diagram below. 18. The microvilli of the small intestine’s epithelial cells form the _brush_ border. 19.

Starting from the ileocecal valve, trace the path of undigested material through the large intestine. 20. List the six sphincters of the digestive tract: a. upper esophageal sphincter (UES) b. the cardiac sphincter c. the pyloric sphincter d. the ileocecal sphincter e. the involuntary f. voluntary anal sphincters. 21. The single digestive function of the liver is to produce _bile_. 22. The main digestive enzyme-producing organ in the body is the _pancreas_. 23. Three pairs of _salivary glands_ function to moisten food in the mouth.