Standardization and Adaptation in Television Advertising

Standardization and Adaptation in Television Advertising Jonas Kenntoft Johan Neglen Lulea University of Technology Bachelor thesis Industrial marketing Department of Business Administration and Social Sciences Division of Business Administration and Management 2007:201 – ISSN: 1402-1773 – ISRN: LTU-CUPP–07/201–SE PREFACE PREFACE When we started this journey, we had no idea about where we were going to end up.

On the way we understood why many people had said to us that the thesis is going to be a lot of hard work but still we had a lot of fun on the way. Last but not the least we learned a lot about both our subject and how to conduct research on this level. After ten weeks of hard work we have finished our thesis. During this time we have gotten help from a lot of people first of all we would like to thank our supervisor Tim Foster for his new ideas and guidance to keep us on track during this ten weeks long struggle.

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We would also like to thank all the people that we have interviewed, without you there would not have been a thesis We hope that this thesis will get more people interested in the quick changing world of television advertising that we live in today and to understand that there is a need for further research in this area. Lulea, May 2007 Jonas Kenntoft Johan Neglen ABSTRACT ABSTRACT Television continues to be a dominant media in the 21st century. As the world continues to “shrink” and globalization increases, those companies that do business in many countries must find innovate ways to communicate their brands.

In international markets, therefore, the decision to standardize or adapt the advertisements between different countries becomes of great importance. The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding for how companies standardize and adapt their television advertising in international markets. In order to reach this purpose, research questions focusing on the elements of television advertisements, as well as the factors that influence the decision to standardize/adapt were stated.

Based on these research questions, a review of the relevant literature was conducted, resulting in a conceptual framework, which was used to guide this study’s data collection. Data was collected via a qualitative, case study approach, using interviews and observation of the television commercials on international consumer brands. The result shows that there are certain appeals that work: Emotional appeals seem to work more on the young, while rational appeals appear to be more effective towards an older target market. One of the primary factors that influence a company’s decision to adapt a commercial is the cost.

In terms of standardizing a television advertisement, the company should focus on non-geographical factors such as humor and family culture. SAMMANFATTNING SAMMANFATTNING 2000-talets reklam medium fortsatter att domineras av TV. Varlden fortsatter att ”krympa” och globaliseringen okar, det pressar de foretag som agerar i manga lander till att hitta nya innovativa satt att kommunicera deras varumarken. Pa internationella marknader har darfor beslutet att standardisera eller att anpassa reklam mellan olika lander fatt okad betydelse.

Syftet med denna studie ar att fa en okad forstaelse for hur foretag standardiserar och anpassar deras TV reklam pa internationella marknader. For att kunna uppna detta syfte sa har tva forskningsfragor angivits, som dels fokuserar pa de olika elementen i TV reklam och aven de faktorer som paverkar beslutet att standardisera eller anpassa reklam. Baserat pa dessa forskningsfragor sa har relevant litteratur granskats som resulterade i en referensram, som vidare anvandes som en guide i datainsamlingen. Data samlades in via en kvalitativ fallstudie, genom intervjuer och observationer av internationella varumarkens olika reklam inslag.

Resultaten visade att en viss appeal fungerar pa olika satt, t ex en emotionell appeal fungerade battre pa unga medan en rationell appeal forefoll att vara mer effektiv nar malgruppen var aldre. En av de viktigaste faktorerna gallande foretagens beslut att standardisera eller anpassa reklam ar kostnadsfaktorn. Nar foretagen valjer att standardisera sin TV reklam, ska de fokusera pa icke-geografiska faktorer, t ex humor och familjekultur for att gora den mer gangbar mellan olika lander. TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.

INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………………………………. 1 1. 1 Background ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 1 1. 2 Problem Discussion ………………………………………………………………………………….. 3 1. 3 Overall Purpose & Research Questions……………………………………………………….. 5 2. LITERATURE REVIEW ………………………………………………………………………………… 2. 1 Elements in Television Advertising…………………………………………………………….. 6 2. 2 Influencing Factors …………………………………………………………………………………… 9 2. 3 Conceptual Framework……………………………………………………………………………. 13 2. 3. 1 Conceptualization –Elements of Television Advertising …………………………… 13 2. 3. 2 Conceptualization – Influencing factors ………………………………………………….. 4 3. METHODOLOGY ………………………………………………………………………………………… 16 3. 1 Purpose of Research: Explorative, Descriptive and Explanatory …………………… 16 3. 2 Research Approach: Qualitative ……………………………………………………………….. 16 3. 3 Research strategy: Case Study; Multiple Unit …………………………………………….. 16 3. 4 Data Collection: Interviews and Observations ……………………………………………. 17 3. Sample Selection: Convenience Sample…………………………………………………….. 18 3. 6 Data Analysis …………………………………………………………………………………………. 19 3. 7 Validity & Reliability ……………………………………………………………………………… 19 4. EMPIRICAL DATA………………………………………………………………………………………. 21 4. 1 Elements of Television Advertising…………………………………………………………… 1 4. 2 Influencing Factors …………………………………………………………………………………. 24 4. 2. 1 Data Collected Sub-unit one; Absolut……………………………………………………… 25 4. 2. 2 Data Collected Sub-unit one; Unilever ……………………………………………………. 26 5. DATA ANALYSIS …………………………………………………………………………………………. 28 5. 1 Elements of Television Advertising…………………………………………………………… 8 5. 2 Influencing Factors …………………………………………………………………………………. 30 6. FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS …………………………………………………………………. 34 6. 1 How can the elements of television commercial that are standardized or adapted be described?……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 34 6. 2 How can the factors that influence the decision to standardize and adapt be described? ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 35 6. 3 Implications and Recommendations ………………………………………………………….. 37 6. 3. 1 Implications for Theory ………………………………………………………………………… 37 6. 3. 2 Implications for Practitioners…………………………………………………………………. 37 6. 3. 3 Implications for Future Research……………………………………………………………. 8 LIST OF REFERENCES …………………………………………………………………………………… 40 APPENDIX A English Interview Guide APPENDIX B Swedish Interview Guide APPENDIX C Gillette Fusion Television Advertisement Werthers Original Television Advertisement Peugeot Television Advertisement Carlsberg Television Advertisement LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES Figure 1. 1: Marketing Communication Process…… ………………………………………1 Table 3. 1: The four sub-categories of case studies………………………………………. 17 Table 3. 2: Tactics for four design tests…. …. …………………………………………. 20 Table 5. 1: Theory and collected data agree or not……………………………………….. 30 Table 5. 2: Theory and collected data agree or not……………………………………….. 33 Table 6. 1: Elements Rated 1-5. …………………………………………………….. ……. 35 INTRODUCTION 1. INTRODUCTION This chapter will introduce the background of the area that is researched. This will eventually lead to a problem discussion about standardization and adaptation in television advertising. The chapter will end with an overall purpose and specific research questions. 1. 1 Background Marketing communication is a process of sharing perceptions.

Marketing communication can be successful in conveying an intended meaning only when the sender’s perceptual field – his experience of the world – is congruent with the receiver’s perceptual field. A message falling outside the receiver’s perceptual field, therefore, cannot transmit the sender’s meaning, although it may well transmit a meaning not intended by the sender. Root (1994) claims that communication between persons that belong to different cultures is distorted by perceptual and encoding/decoding gaps that derive from the cultural distance between sender and receiver.

Furthermore, because of the unconscious nature of much of culture, communication distortion is intensified by the fact that the existence of such gaps is not recognized. (Root, 1994) Czinkota and Ronkainen (2004) showed in the marketing communications model presented in Figure 1. 1, that effective communication requires three main elements – the sender, the message and the receiver – that is connected by a message channel. The emphasis for the thesis will be in the message element of the marketing communication process. Sender (Encodes Message) Message Message Channel Receiver (Decodes Message)

Noise Feedback Figure 1. 1: Marketing Communication Process Source: Adapted from Czinkota and Ronkainen (2004), p. 306 Communication Outcome The process begins with a message that the sender wish to send. The sender started by encoding the message, converting the message into symbolic form that is properly understood by the receiver. The message channel is the path through which the message moves from sender to receiver, and referred to by Czinkota and Ronkainen (2004) as the medium. The completion of the process is when the receiver is done with decoding the message from symbols into hought. A message moving through a channel or medium is subject to influence of extraneous and distracting stimuli. This interference is referred to by Czinkota and Ronkainen (2004) as noise. Root (1994) mention that communication between persons belonging to the same culture benefits from a high degree of congruence in their perceptual fields and of commonality in their message codes. Sometimes one or both sender and receiver believe that they have 1 INTRODUCTION understood the message correctly even though they have not.

The feedback process, therefore, is also subject to cultural distortion. (Root, 1994) The promotional mix is a part of the marketing communication strategy for organizations to reach out to the target audience. It consists of five main elements, advertising, personal selling, public relations, direct marketing, and sales promotion. Advertising represents non-personal, mass communication; personal selling covers face-to-face personally tailored messages. Sales promotion involves tactical, short-term incentives that encourage a target audience to behave in a certain way.

Public relations are about creating and maintaining good-quality relationships with many interested groups (for example the media, shareholders and trade unions), not only with customers. Finally, direct marketing involves creating one-to-one relationships with individual customers, often in mass markets, and might involve mailings, telephone selling or electronic media. (Brassington & Pettitt, 2000) Root (1994) defines advertising as any paid form of non personal communication by an identified sponsor to promote a product or company. It is also claimed that advertising is the dominant channel for mass promotion (ibid).

Cultural values are important for the success of advertisement according to Laroche and Teng (2006) and they also say that it has been acknowledged that cultural values are the core of an advertising message. For example, cultural values and norms that are embedded in advertising appeals have been shown to enhance the effectiveness of persuasive communications. Laroche and Teng (2006) further claim that recent research has indicated that when cultural values that match people’s traditions are embedded in advertisements, consumers are able to find commonalities between themselves and the characteristics of the advertisement.

The opposite applies when values do not match the advertisement. (Laroche & Teng, 2006) International advertising – the ability to transfer an advertising message among country markets – has always been a controversial subject (Hill & Shao, 1993). Furthermore Laroche and Teng (2006) discuss that the central informational cue in advertising is typically based on product attributes, which can be emphasized in a general manner and applicable to different markets across a diverse range of cultures.

Consequently, it is imperative that the key arguments in the advertisements are believable and compelling, regardless of the target market. (Laroche & Teng, 2006) The more managers know about their target audience – buying motivations, behaviour, purchasing power, demographic characteristics and cultural values – the better they can design the promotion strategy in their international advertisement (Root, 1994).

In the 1950s, preference was for an adaptation approach in advertising; as knowledge of international markets increased, more standardized advertisements were used in the 1960s; in the 1970s, the trend swung toward more adaptation due to the rise of nationalisms; in the 1980s, the trend swung back toward standardization because of the rise in the number of multinational advertisement agencies and companies and the flow of mergers and acquisitions. (Darmon, Kirpalani & Laroche, 1999) The advertising media are called on to perform the task of delivering the message to the consumers.

The different media are, radio, television, print, cinema and outdoor. Two major media are print and television. Print media, such as local and national newspapers, special interest magazines and trade publications, have thus become the primary focus for most organisations’ advertising efforts. (Brassington & Pettitt, 2000) Television 2 INTRODUCTION advertisers can demonstrate the product or service in motion, using the many elements offered by the media (Jobber, 2007).

Designing the television commercial with the correct combination of those elements to give the message a strong chance of grabbing the attention and getting the message across, is crucial to achieve the desired impact on the consumers (Brassington & Pettitt, 2000). 1. 2 Problem Discussion Television can be used to demonstrate the product in action, or to use colour and sound to build an atmosphere around the product, thus enhancing its image (Fahy & Jobber, 2006). The emphasis for this thesis will be television advertisements, because of the many elements of television, sound, colour, sight and motion that aid the presentation of the message.

Also the fact that Brassington and Pettitt (2000) argue that television is better for creating an advertisement message with emotional appeals, contributes to our concentration to television advertisements. Root (1994) further suggested the importance of matching the message with culture and by saying that the message is received but misunderstood, either because of ambiguous content (buying propositions) or more commonly because of a presentation that is not responsive to cultural differences. Adaptation is essential because of various constraints; first people in different countries speak different languages.

Second, and the most important source of constraints by far, and the most difficult to measure, is cultural differences rooted in history, education, religion, values and attitudes, manners and customs, aesthetics as well as differences in taste, needs and wants. (Vrontis, 2003) Before producing a television advertisement, the marketer has to have a deep understanding of the target audience. Brassington and Pettitt (2000) claim that the main aim in advertisement message design is to prepare an informative and persuasive message in terms of words, symbols and illustrations.

That will not only attract attention but retain interest through its presentation so that the target audience responds as desired (ibid). The degree of television advertisement standardization/adaptation at the international level refers mainly to the manipulation by the manager of the promotional mix elements (Bradley & Sousa, 2005). Supporters of standardization say a trend is sweeping both marketing and advertising – the movement to create products that are manufactured, packaged and promoted the same way around the world, regardless of individual cultures (Mueller, 1989).

According to Bradley & Sousa (2005) higher degree of adaptation is encouraged when the manager perceives great differences, in the economic environment and life styles between the home and foreign country. On the one hand, those who support the global standardization approach argue that a single television advertisement should be used in international markets to reduce total costs and promote a global corporate image. On the other hand, those who support the internationalization school of thought see the need for marketing adaptation to fit the unique dimensions of each local market. Vrontis, 2003) Those researchers who view markets, or costumers’ wants and needs, for being homogeneous argue that the standardization of advertising is more effective as it allows for the lowering of costs, via economies of scale, and thus increasing margins for a firm (Griffith, Ryans & White, 2003). Backhaus, Muhlfeld and Van Doorn (2001) suggests that standardized advertising campaigns should use the same advertisement internationally with minimal, if any, thematic copy or illustration adaptation, with the only country-specific concession being the use of the respective national language. INTRODUCTION However, the decision to standardize promotion is not one decision but rather a series of decisions related to individual promotional elements (Chandra, Griffith & Ryans, 2002). Chandra et al. (2002) continue with arguing that advance in global communication, sourcing, and so on have created homogenized global market segments advanced. If the segment exists, consumers in cross-national market segments share common behavioural response patterns and preference structures and thus react similarly to marketing stimuli. (Chandra et al. 2002) Countries differ widely in the availability, quality, coverage, audience, and cost of advertising media (Root, 1994). According to Laroche and Teng (2006) matching the distinctive cultural values is a vital component of international advertising and marketing. Therefore, marketing practitioners should always consider cultural variables in their advertising because culture seems to influence advertising tactics and consumer’s decision making (ibid). Taking that in consideration and determining the optimum advertisement message, by adapting the promotional message to cultural differences (Root, 1994). Chandra’s et al. 2002) research suggests that cross-market consumer variations may necessitate unique decisions about adaptations in an advertisement’s theme, slogan, idiomatic expressions, symbols and colours. Furthermore, Chandra et al. (2002) state that for a firm to maximize profits fully, it must adapt their advertising campaigns to the needs of its specific international target market. Underlying the standardization debate is the issue of effectively balancing the economic benefits gained through standardized strategies and tactics with the performance gains achieved when adapting to local market conditions (Chandra et al. 2002). Bradley and Sousa (2005) draw attention to the fact that advertising is highly bounded by culture and those foreign customers are likely to be less responsive to advertising that fails to match their cultural preferences precisely. Understanding cultural differences is therefore, often considered a prerequisite for successful advertising in foreign markets (ibid). Not only are cultural and other differences very much still in evidence, but marketing a single product one way everywhere can scare off customers, alienate employees, and blind company to its customers’ needs (Vrontis, 2003).

The differences in the environment have, therefore, to be considered when discussing the feasibility of standardization. Generally, standardization appears more likely where the foreign market is most similar to the domestic market, while adaptation is preferred when markets are viewed as different (Chandra et al. , 2002). The feasibility and appropriateness of universal, modified, or completely different campaigns depend on many factors, and there is little consensus as to the key determining ones.

Although whatever factors influencing, the final decision regarding standardization or adaptation of television advertising is always the client’s. (Darmon, et al. , 1999) Advertising is more resistant to homogenization than products and brands; Melewar and Vemmervik (2004) claim that advertising is more dependent on cultural influence than other marketing elements. Because of these characteristics, the visual and verbal elements of advertising are particularly sensitive, and use of local language, models and scenery increase the probability for the advertisement to be effective. Melewar & Vemmervik, 2004) 4 INTRODUCTION 1. 3 Overall Purpose & Research Questions Based on the problem discussion above the purpose of this thesis is to provide a better understanding of how companies standardize and adapt their television advertising in international markets. RQ1: How can the elements of television commercial that are standardized or adapted be described? RQ2: How can the factors that influence the decision to standardize or adapt be described? 5 LITERATURE REVIEW 2. LITERATURE REVIEW In this chapter, an overview of previous research related to the research questions is presented.

First, studies related to elements in television advertisements will be presented. Secondly, studies relevant to influencing factors of the decision to standardize or adapt. Finally, a conceptual framework for the thesis will be presented. 2. 1 Elements in Television Advertising Melewar and Vemmervik (2004) found in their research that the visual and verbal elements of advertising are particularly sensitive to/and are more dependent on cultural differences. They continue with saying that the use of local language, models and scenery increases the probability for the advertisement to be effective.

Laroche and Teng (2006) added another element appeal, which will add another dimension to our research and provide a more comprehensive and clear picture of the research area. Appeals Advertising appeals are defined as message designed to motivate customers to make a purchase. (Mueller, 1992) According to Laroche and Teng (2006) the most basic elements associated with advertising are the choice of appeal. Kelley and Turley (1997) state that advertising appeals are commonly categorize into two broad types, rational and emotional appeal.

Laroche and Teng (2006) further argue that when cultural values and norms are embedded in advertising appeals it have been shown to enhance the effectiveness of persuasive communication. Therefore, we add a cultural appeal. Rational advertising stems from the traditional information processing models of decision making where the consumer is believed to make logical and rational decisions. Such appeals relate to the audience’s self-interest by showing product benefits. Examples are messages showing a product’s quality, economy, value or performance. Albers-Miller & Stafford, 1999) Albers-Miller and Stafford (1999) found that, overall, thinking advertisements provided more information than emotional advertisements, and were subsequently better liked and resulted in higher purchase intentions. Albers-Miller and Stafford (1999) suggested that rational, informative advertising appeals may help reduce some of the uncertainty often associated with the purchase of services. In contrast, emotional appeals are grounded in the emotional, experiential side of consumption.

They seek to make the consumer feel good about the product, by creating a likeable or friendly brand; they rely on feelings for effectiveness. According to AlbersMiller and Stafford’s (1999) emotional appeals attempt to stir up either negative or positive emotions that can motivate purchase. These include fear, guilt and shame appeals that get people to do things they should or stop doing things they should not … communicators also use positive emotional appeals such as love, humour, pride and joy. (Albers-Miller & Stafford, 1999) Emotional appeals are the most effective conveying a personality to consumers (Kelley & Turley, 1997).

The traditional view in advertising has been that the effectiveness of a particular message appeal is contingent on the type of product being advertised (ibid). Albers-Miller and Stafford (1999) also suggest that appeals generating an emotional response result in more positive reactions and higher level of recall. 6 LITERATURE REVIEW In a recent study by Laroche and Teng (2006) they have pointed out that when customers experience advertisements with distinct culture-laden appeals in combination with arguments, the arguments and appeals cause contrast effects on the consumers’ perception and purchase behaviour.

To enhance the effectiveness of persuasive communication, Laroche and Teng (2006) suggested that cultural values and norms should be embedded in advertising appeals. Among different cultures there are different appeals that influence customers in the best way. When the appeals do not match the traditions of the people they find differences between themselves and the characteristics of the advertisement. Resulting in that the advertisement will not achieve the desired objective. (Laroche & Teng, 2006) It is also said that there are differences in appeals between the East and West that go back to ancient times.

A part of this is because of that the Greek philosophers have influenced the western culture, which has lead to the emphasis on verbal communication. There is no tradition like that in the oriental philosophy that has lead to that they rely more on nonverbal communication. (Mueller, 1992) A paper by Andersson, Hedelin and Nilsson (2004) mentions the phenomenon about marketing campaigns using violent and shocking appeal. The advertisements they had reviewed created many different reactions and associations among respondents, both male and female respondents reacted negatively on the usage of sex and violence.

They did not interpret the message in the same way as it was intended. However, they also reach the conclusion that males and females do not have the same reactions, sometimes the females could identify themselves with the ads since there where children in display. (Andersson et al. , 2004) Verbal elements Nelson and Paek (2007) argue for the importance of language with saying that language is much more important than many international advertisers realize. The use of the English language can convey values or it can confuse meaning, for example, when colloquial expressions are employed (ibid).

McIntyre and Stevenson (1995) argue that the numerical and economic importance of minorities continues to increase. This brought the discussion to the fact that specific vernacular or dialects are under represented in advertising relative to their frequency of use in the general population. Stewart (1994) argues that this applies to national languages also, because it is certainly the case when offer information in the local language it will increase the effectiveness of the communication.

Stewart (1994) concludes his discussion with saying that language and dialects is a potentially important component of advertising that uses dramatic approach. One thing to be careful about is the usage of vernaculars and dialects that is often associated with stereotypes that may not be positive. (Stewart, 1994) Duncan and Ramaprasad’s (1995) survey show that the use of standardized language is not common. Their survey results show that only 11 percent of the brands use standardized language in all countries, 41 percent use it in some countries, and 43 percent do not use standardized language at all.

When using television in advertising the big difference from radio or printed advertisements is the many dimension added, this makes communication more natural and 7 LITERATURE REVIEW gives them value. If television advertisements are used as a message channel and it is standardized across countries only with language adaptation, there is a risk that the value added by the extra dimensions will partly be lost because of the lack of lip synchronization. Audio that is not synchronized with video can be distracting and viewers might fail to identify with the advertisement. Furnell, Lines, Mued & Reynolds, 2003) As an example in a comparison of music styles and lyrics used in television advertisements, Nelson and Paek (2007) observed that domestic brands were more likely than multinational brands to use localized Latin music and lyrics in the Dominican Republic. Visual elements Colour is an essential part of products, logos and advertising, and can be an effective means of creating and sustaining brand and corporate images in customers’ minds. Colours are known to possess emotional and psychological properties.

The meanings associated with different colours are important to marketers when developing advertisements, because results have demonstrated that people of different cultures have various preferences for colour. It is important for marketers to understand which colours that people prefer. Consequently, managers must acknowledge that the meanings associated with some colours may be pan-cultural, regional, or unique to a given culture. (Hewett, Madden & Roth, 1999) According to Cho, Kwon, Gentry, Jun and Kropp (1999) themes are outputs of the creative process; themes are the content of the message, that is, “what is communicated”.

Cho et al. (1999) also mention that in respect to international advertising, the buying proposals (what one say) are much more amenable to international transfer than creative processes, including themes. As an example, Kim-Shyan and Waller (2006) identified specific likeable themes for three Asian cities, Shanghai; a funny/amusing/humorous theme and nice music, Jakarta; having an interesting theme and setting is important, Bangkok; a theme showing a slice of life is liked in Thailand. Greenberg and Solomon (1993) claim that advertising is not created in a casual or random fashion.

From the choice of scenery and location to the tone and nuance of copy, meticulous attention is paid by directors, production and set designers, and many others to the execution of television commercials. These specialists strive to create a compelling setting, a physical environment that will fulfil an advertisement agency’s vision of how best to reinforce the focal product’s intended “brand personality. ” The importance of physical and sensory cues that “place” a product in some real or imaginary setting, also known as stylistic context have increased.

Contextual issues are important to advertisers, since the information conveyed by an advertisement environment can influence the degree to which members of a target market identify with its central characters and intent – or wish to emulate the lifestyle depicted by purchasing the featured product. A well-crafted message, presented against a backdrop of props that “make sense” and reinforce the intended meanings, can convey a powerful and persuasive image. (Greenberg & Solomon, 1993) Advertising theory and practice advise that to resonate with the audience, advertising should present models similar to the target group.

This strategy is based on assumptions 8 LITERATURE REVIEW that identification can invoke involvement in the advertisement and transfer positive feelings to the brand. Such beliefs and practices conform to a localized advertising strategy. (Nelson & Paek, 2007) Cross-cultural studies of global brand advertising often show that models are the most easily standardized advertising element across campaigns. Comparisons of British and French television advertisements for the same advertisers revealed that 81 percent of advertisements contained the same characters. Nelson & Paek, 2007) Standardizing spokespersons across campaigns may be for practical reasons (e. g. the cost of hiring local actors) or for strategic reasons (e. g. a standardized spokesperson can drive global brands). For example, Revlon (a global cosmetics brand) believes that a single model can project a universal image of beauty. Some research has also explored the use of spokespersons in local and trans-national media. As a whole, these studies reveal that global approaches feature standard, often Western, models.

For example, a content analysis in Singapore and Taiwanese women’s media revealed that the race of the models used in each culture did not reflect the racial mix of that country’s population. (Nelson & Paek, 2007) In some countries it is more frequent with spokespersons, usually famous people that give their testimony about the product in the advertisement. There is a difference between countries and culture to what extent this is used. (Jacobs, Keown & Synodinos, 1989) Media, whether it is print, television or even the Internet, is flooded with advertisements for products and services endorsed by models that are highly attractive.

Marketers targeting their products towards women often use highly attractive sources in their advertisement in an effort to increase the advertisements’ effectiveness. (Ganesh, Harris & Whang, 2006) However, researchers have been divided in their support for the effectiveness, Ganesh et al. have documented some negative effects, and these studies suggest that such negative effects are due to the fact that people compare themselves with these beautiful models, which lead to feelings of inadequacy and/or jealousy. Others Cho et al. (1999) advocate that the advertising messages should be congruent with the values of the local culture. Cho et al. (1999) summarized this position by noting that cultural values are the core of advertising messages. Typical advertisements endorse, glamorize, and reinforce cultural values. In addition, empirical studies have found that advertisements reflecting (some) local cultural values are more persuasive than those that ignore them (ibid). According to Hairong, Reece, and Vanden Bergh (1994) the slogan still maintains the prominence as an important advertising technique.

Their research showed that four out of five advertisements used a slogan to reinforce the brand name or create an image. 2. 2 Influencing Factors This section will discuss the many factors that influence the decision to standardize or adapt that other researchers found. They will be stated and continuously explained throughout in this chapter. The feasibility and appropriateness of universal, modified, or completely different campaigns depend on many factors, and there is little consensus as to the key determining 9 LITERATURE REVIEW ones.

Although there are many influencing factors, the final decision regarding standardization/adaptation of television advertising is always the client’s. (Darmon et al. , 1999) Cost According to Darmon et al. (1999) considerable cost savings create pressure in favour of standardization. Duncan and Ramaprasad (1995) also mention the convenience and the opportunity to save money with a standardized advertising strategy across countries. Chandra et al. (2003) theorize that standardization enables firms to lower costs through economies of scale, which thus increase a firm’s margins and enables it to gain greater global coordination.

In contrast to the earlier statements, Duncan and Ramaprasad (1995) were surprised when their survey rated “saving money” as one of the least important reasons for standardization, even though since there has been a lot written about economies of scale being the reason for using standardized advertising. Roth and Samiee (1992) state regarding to cost that pursuing of global standardization is generally considered to be appropriate only to the extent to which it has a positive influence on cost or as they call it, financial performance.

Further on in their article they claim that the primary element that encourages standardization of marketing across markets is the associated cost savings. These savings include economies of scale in research and development, production of television advertising and marketing strategy development. (Roth & Samiee, 1992) The role of headquarters and subsidiaries sale level The decision to group together sales and role (level of autonomy, power) of headquarters and a subsidiary to one factor are because of the correlation between high sales and subsidiary power.

Duncan and Ramaprasad (1995) research found that both the strategy and execution were more likely to be changed in the more affluent markets and in markets where subsidiaries had higher sales. They believed that the stiffer competition and higher sales gave subsidiaries more leverage to localize the message. Whether local offices of multinational companies can make important decisions, may depend on their degree of independence. (Duncan & Ramaprasad, 1995) Darmon et al. (1999) argue about excessive local autonomy that could lead to rejection of a standardized advertising campaign, even if it is excellent.

To resolve this dilemma they advocated involving subsidiaries in the development of strategy and international advertising. Macro factors Chandra et al. (2002) define the term to refer to the consistency in legal, political, economic, regulatory, and marketing infrastructures. Those factors vary markedly from country to country and they influence the decision significantly. Jobber (2007) mentions one example of important regulatory issue that is crucial information for marketers in South-Korea; they only permit to have Korean models and actors in advertisement, such as commercials and print ads. 0 LITERATURE REVIEW The difference in economical development is expected to affect promotion adaptation. Countries that are economically alike have similarities and commonalities in lifestyle patterns. (Bradley & Sousa, 2005) It must be said that neither the convergence of social, economic, nor marketing trends of different countries nor the increase in travel and labour mobility across different cultures directly imply a more standardized form of advertising communication. (Darmon, et al. , 1999) Mueller (1992) brought interesting facts to our attention through her research.

She found that three quarters of the advertisement in Japan contains at least one non translated English word. Further on she wonders about the effectiveness of using English, considering that 98 percent of the population only speak Japanese. Single brand image A single brand image is according to Duncan and Ramaprasad’s (1995) survey the most important reason for standardization. Vrontis (2003) also mention in his research that in support of single brand image, standardization should be used to promote a global corporate image.

Backhaus, Muhlfeld and Van Doorn (2001) explains the advantage with standardization of the brand image to be even more important now, due to increasing geographic customer mobility (e. g. , because of tourism) and media spill over (e. g. , global broadcasting). This results in the broadening of the “perception sphere” (ibid). Cultural, economic, social, and other differences make it difficult for companies to define or identify a single brand image that has a global appeal (Hewett, Madden & Roth, 1999). Hewett’s et al. 1999) findings show that firms are just as likely to use different image strategies across markets as they are to keep the image strategy the same. Product category A standardized advertising strategy should be more easily produced for products in which individuals share common consumer behaviours than for products used in culturally specific ways. For instance, consumer high-tech goods (computers, mobile phones) may be somewhat similar across cultures whereas food is generally considered to be consumed in traditional and idiosyncratic ways.

Beauty-related product advertisements may be more easily standardized than more culture-specific items such as food or automobiles, because they focus on similar needs for beauty among a shared audience (Nelson & Paek, 2007). Standardization may be effective for products in which the audience shares universal behaviours, particularly those products that are considered modern and cosmopolitan. However, other general products such as automobiles and food may reflect indigenous cultural rules and practices. Nelson & Paek, 2007) Albers-Miller and Stafford (1999) suggest that a more emotional (value-expressive) appeal should be used for a value-expressive product and a more rational (utilitarian) appeal should be used for a utilitarian product. Duncan and Ramaprasad’s (1995) stated in their survey that standardization of television advertisement seems to work best when the product is pragmatic or utilitarian and when it satisfies universal physical needs such as shaving or diapering babies. In such cases, they explained, the message is often rational and informational. 1 LITERATURE REVIEW Demographic, psychographic and cultural characteristics Chandra et al, (2003) argues that the feasibility of promotion standardization relies on the existence of homogenous market segments across countries. If it exists, according to the authors, consumers in cross-national market segments share common behavioural response patterns and preference structure and thus react similarly to marketing stimuli. Vrontis (2003) see a need for advertising adaptation to fit the unique dimensions of each local market.

Bradley and Sousa (2005) draw attention to the fact that advertising is highly bounded by culture and those foreign customers are likely to be less responsive to promotion that fails to precisely match their cultural preferences. They conclude with the saying that because of that fact, understanding cultural differences is therefore often considered a prerequisite for successful advertising in foreign markets. Laroche and Teng’s (2006) research has indicated that when cultural values that match people’s traditions are mbedded in advertisements, consumers are able to find commonalities between themselves and the characteristics of the advertisement. Conversely, when the cultural values of an advertisement do not match people’s traditions, they find differences between themselves and the characteristics of the advertisement. The authors continue when explaining their results by saying that a vital component of international advertising is to properly matching advertising to the distinctive cultural values of the target consumers.

If marketers do not take cultural and other differences in consideration and standardize an advertising campaign one way everywhere, they risk scaring off customers, alienating employees, and blinding a company to its customers’ needs. (Vrontis, 2003) Communication from one culture to another is difficult because of cultural factors that considerably affect the way phenomena are perceived. When the perceptual basis of reference is different, the perception of the message will change. (Darmon, et al. 1999) Exploiting a successful idea Duncan and Ramaprasad’s (1995) explained that exploiting a successful idea that might have taken many years to develop, when finally it is starting to produce results, clients are anxious to leverage this idea and their investment by introducing it to other countries. Several of their respondents also explained that really “big ideas” are easiest to standardize, one respondent also explained that when a campaign strategy has been in use for more than twenty-five years in one single country (which has seen changes in culture during this time), it has proven it can work in more than one culture.

NIH “Not invented here” It is a factor and a barrier to standardization. Despite the considerable use of standardization, if the agencies are on the receiving end of standardized campaigns, only 12% feel comfortable using such advertising, a finding that documents the resistance at the local level to using creative materials “not invented here”. The “not invented here” attitude may be a serious problem for extending campaigns beyond their original national borders.

Duncan and Ramaprasad (1995) concludes this barrier by saying that a challenge for clients may be balancing the time and cost of having each local market develop a 12 LITERATURE REVIEW “great” campaign compared with using a standardized campaign that may be “good but not great”. (Duncan & Ramaprasad, 1995) 2. 3 Conceptual Framework According to Miles and Huberman (1994) the conceptual framework is described as something that explains, either graphically or in narrative form, where the focus of the study will lay.

Namely factors, constructs or variables and the relationship between them. They also argue that it is easier to develop a conceptual framework if the research questions have been stated already; this has also been done in our study. To be able to answer the research questions stated in chapter one, we have to explain what we will collect our data on. Among the material presented earlier we are going to choose the theories that are the most relevant to our data collection.

We start with stating the relevant theories for research question one followed by relevant theories for research question two. 2. 3. 1 Conceptualization –Elements of Television Advertising There are many different elements in an advertisement, Laroche and Teng (2006) researched the different appeal elements of advertising, and Melewar and Vemmervik (2004) have divided the elements into visual and verbal elements.

The following theories will be used in our data collection and in a later chapter compared with our data: Appeals Rational Examples are of rational advertisement is when the message show a product’s quality, economy, value or performance (Albers-Miller & Stafford, 1999) Informative (rational) advertising appeals may help reduce some of the uncertainty (Albers-Miller & Stafford, 1999). Emotional Consumers feel good about the product (Albers-Miller & Stafford, 1999). Rely on feelings for effectiveness (Albers-Miller & Stafford, 1999).

Effective in conveying a personality to consumers (Kelley & Turley, 1997) Generates an emotional response result in more positive reactions. (Albers-Miller & Stafford, 1999) Culture Laroche and Teng (2006) argue that culture appeal increase the effectiveness of persuasive communication. Opposite if not matching culture appeal (Laroche & Teng, 2006). Speech elements National Language Use of local language increases the effectiveness of the communication. (Stewart, 1994) 13 LITERATURE REVIEW Sound Audio that is not synchronized with video can be distracting. (Furnell et al,. 003) Visual elements Scenery It is important to consumers to identify themselves with the “place” the product is in. (Greenberg & Solomon, 1993) Models Advertising should present models similar to the target group. (Nelson & Paek, 2007) 2. 3. 2 Conceptualization – Influencing factors As mentioned earlier there are many influencing factors to the decision of standardization or adaptation in television advertising. We have found relevant theories regarding influencing factors; these relevant theories will be looked at and compared with the collected data: Cost According to Darmon et al. 1999) considerable cost savings create pressure in favour of standardization, and their survey rated “saving money” as one of the least important reasons for standardization. Demographic, psychographic and cultural characteristics Chandra et al. (2003) argues that the feasibility of advertising standardization relies on the existence of homogenous market segments across countries. Consumers share common behavioural response patterns and preference structure and thus react similarly to marketing stimuli. (Chandra et al. , 2003) Cultural values should be embedded in advertisement to increase the ability for consumers to identify to it. Laroche & Teng, 2006) Macro factors Legal, political, economic, regulatory, and marketing infrastructure factors vary markedly from country to country and they influence the decision significantly. (Chandra et al. , 2003) Countries that are economically alike have similarities and commonalities in lifestyle patterns. (Bradley & Sousa, 2005) Increase in travel and labour mobility (Darmon et al. , 1999) Single brand image To promote a global corporate image a single brand image should be used (Duncan and Ramaprasad’s, 1995:Vrontis, 2003) 14

LITERATURE REVIEW Product category Standardized advertising for products in which individuals share common consumer behaviours. (Nelson & Paek, 2007) Adapted advertising for products used in culturally specific ways. (Nelson & Paek, 2007) 15 METHODOLOGY 3. METHODOLOGY In this chapter the methodology used for this thesis will be presented. The chapter starts with the purpose, approach and strategy of the research, continuing with data collection and sample selection. Concluding with a discussion about the methodological problems occurred during the study. 3. Purpose of Research: Explorative, Descriptive and Explanatory Informing the reader about what the authors want to achieve and how its going to be done can be used to state the purpose of the research. The purpose of research is divided into different categories, explorative, descriptive and explanatory. (Eriksson & WiedersheimPaul, 2001) Explorative is used when the researcher is trying to seek new insights and put phenomenon in a new light, can be compared with the activities of a traveller or an explorer. It is a useful approach when there is a need for clarifying the understanding of a problem.

Basic ways to conduct exploratory research: Searching for literature, talking to experts and conducting focus group interviews. (Saunders, Lewis & Thornhill, 2000) Descriptive is used to make portrayals of events, persons or situations. It could be a piece or an extension of exploratory research since it is necessary to have a clear picture of the phenomena that the data will be collected on before the collection itself. (Saunders, et al. , 2000) Explanatory are the studies that establish casual relationships between variables could be referred to as explanatory studies.

The weight is put on studying a situation or problem to define correlations between different variables. (Saunders, et al. , 2000) In this thesis we are using all of these categories. Since the foundation in our research will be getting better understanding of standardization and adaptation decisions in television advertising, it is important to have a wide base. Therefore the researchers will start with explorative research. Then the researchers will use descriptive research to retrieve more knowledge and understanding about the advertisements that we are going to base the interviews on.

When the interviews are done, we are going to use an explanatory approach to evaluate the data collected and try to give answers to the two research questions stated in chapter one. 3. 2 Research Approach: Qualitative The choice of qualitative research is based on our purpose to get a deeper understanding of the area. The data that we will be collected cannot be generalized since it is not covering the whole population but it will give us a possibility to gain an understanding of what the population covered think and why these decisions are made.

One thing that arises when working with qualitative research is the problem to connect information from different sources since they could be too specific. (Lewis, et al. , 2000) 3. 3 Research strategy: Case Study; Multiple Unit According to Yin (1989) there are five different research strategies; experiment, survey, archival analysis, history and case study. Case study is defined as development of detailed, intensive knowledge about one or a small selection of cases. It is also mentioned to be a good way to explore existing theory (Lewis, et al. 2000). Our research is focussed on 16 METHODOLOGY contemporary events and the research questions in this study are based on “How” questions that is leaned towards explanatory research. According to Yin (1989) the best suited method for a study like this is case study. There are also ways to do categorization within case studies itself, shown in table 3. 1. Table 3. 1: The four sub-categories of case studies Single-case designs Holistic (single unit of analysis) Embedded (multiple units of analysis) Type 1 Multiple-case designs Type 3

Type 2 Type 4 Source: Adopted from Yin, 1994, p. 39 Within the area of case studies there are four types of narrowing it down even more as shown above. Yin (1994) mentions that the same case study can involve more than one unit of analysis. It means that within a single case attention also is given to sub-units. For example, our case study is about consumer products, and we will have two units making up that single case. This is referred by Yin (1994) as embedded single case design (shown as Type 2 in the table above). . 4 Data Collection: Interviews and Observations Data can be collected in two ways either primary that is data collected for the first time, or secondary which is data that already exists (Eriksson & Wiedersheim-Paul, 2001). For this thesis we are going to work only with collecting primary data. According to Yin (1989), data can be collected for case studies through six different sources: documentation, archival records, interviews, direct observations, participant observations and physical artefacts.

Yin (1989) also argues that a major strength of collecting data by case studies is the possibility to use many different sources of evidence. According to Yin (1989) this reduces the risk of bias and is called triangulation. The data collection methods that will be used for this study is divided between the research questions. We are going to conduct direct observatories followed by interviews with consumers for research question one. For research question two we will be focussing on interviews with corporate respondents.

Yin (1989) claims that there are two types of interviews, focussed interview and formal survey. We will use the focussed interview for our data collection; we developed an interview guide that will be like an outline for discussion during the interview. This will give us the opportunity to get an open discussion with the respondents and get a wider answer and better understanding since we can ask follow-up questions. At the same time this could lead to bias since the respondent in some way might be lead by our questions to make the answer that we prefer. 7 METHODOLOGY 3. 5 Sample Selection: Convenience Sample For our research two research questions we conducted six interviews with six people, two marketing managers and four consumers. Often, it is extremely difficult (sometimes impossible) to select a random sample. Therefore a convenience sample will be used, which is described by Fraenckel, and Wallen (2001) to be a group of individuals who (conveniently) are available for the study. We will show the criteria we developed for our respondents and the documentation (advertisement) showed.

Criteria for respondents to research question one: We first thought that we could analyse the television advertisements by ourselves, but we decided to analyse them together with four people. The respondents had to be: from different age-groups not all of the same sex from Sweden This would enable us to add more views than our own to describe the elements of advertising and to get age differentiated viewpoints on standardization and adaptation. The sample consisted of people in our network, two students and two 50+ respondents.

Criteria for respondents to research question two: We chose to make a single case of multiple units, and we had two criteria’s that the companies had to fulfil. The company had to: be an international company use television in their advertising We sat and thought about which companies would be relevant for our research and we came up with Unilever and Absolut, one sub-unit that use standardization a lot and one that use adaptation a lot. We found Unilever interesting because of the vast supply of products in different markets with many television advertisements airing right now.

With that as a background we contacted Unilever Sweden, and we reached Mrs. Katarina Jerndahl, Nordic Communication Channel Manager, we had e-mail and telephone correspondence. We have come across Absolut’s remarkable marketing skills in many text books during our years in school. The fact that they are a global brand made us interested in their opinion about factors influencing the decision. Through our contact who work as a Planner at Saatchi Saatchi Stockholm advertisement agency, we got in touch with Mrs. Cecilia Falk, Channel Marketing Director Absolut Spirits International.

Now we had two respondents that could answer intelligently about the factors influencing the decision to standardize and adapt. Choice of documentation We have regarded to research question one chosen to show the four respondents four commercials, Gillette Fusion, Werthers Original, Peugeot and finally Carlsberg. We 18 METHODOLOGY studied several commercials at Youtube’s homepage and found those four the most interesting and through two criteria’s. The commercial had to: be a global brand be aired in Sweden 3. 6 Data Analysis Yin (1994) argues that each study should begin with a general analytical strategy.

Yin (1994) has suggested two general analytical strategies, relying on theoretical propositions and developing a case description both of these strategies provide the researchers with a system to understand what to analyse and why. Developing a case description strategy is used when the researcher use a descriptive way to present the data, this strategy should only be used when little previous research is available. Relying on theoretical propositions is the most common and advised strategy, when researchers use this strategy they collect data with research questions and previous research as basis. Yin, 1994) When the strategy has been chosen, and the data has been collected, the researchers have to analyse the data in a systematic way. Miles and Huberman (1994) suggest three flows of activity when working through quantitative data in an analytic way: Data reduction is made to make the data sharper, focussed, sorted, and organized so conclusions can be drawn easily. A within-case analysis is used during this phase to compare collected data with theory presented. Data display is the second activity where the researchers display the reduced data in an organised way to facilitate the drawing of conclusions.

Conclusion drawing/verification is the final activity of quantitative data analysis. Here the researchers begins to decide what things signify by noting regularities, patterns, explanations, possible configurations and propositions. Although some doubt should be maintained for this results. Our thesis will rely on theoretical propositions as a strategy and we will follow Miles and Huberman’s (1994) suggested activities. 3. 7 Validity & Reliability According to Denscombe (2000) it is really hard to know if the person who is being interviewed is telling the truth or not.

There is a possibility for the interviewer to verify the information with other persons or sources; such verification is very hard to do when the questions are about assumptions, feelings or experiences (Denscombe, 2000). In our study we have to keep this in mind, since the interviews that we will conduct are about people’s feelings and experiences. Denscombe (2000) have some hint to help the interviewer to find out what is true and what is not. Denscombe (2000) mentions two basic ways to verify if the data collected by interviews are reliable.

The first one is to let the person who has been interviewed get a copy of what has been said to give the respondent a chance to make things right by making corrections. If something has been misunderstood it is very important to fix it. The second method is to use other sources in the same area that is called method triangulation (Denscombe, 2000). The different parts of validity and reliability according to Yin (1989) will be shown in Table 3. 2. 19 METHODOLOGY Table 3. 2: Tactics for four design tests Tests Construct validity Internal validity External validity Reliability

Source: Yin, 1989, p. 41 Phase of Research in Which Tactic Occurs – Use multiple sources of evidence – Data collection – Establish chain of evidence – Data collection – Have key informants review draft – Composition case study report – Do pattern matching – Data analysis – Do explanation-building – Data analysis – Do time-series analysis – Data analysis – Use replication logic in multiple- – Research design case studies – Use case study protocol – Data collection – Develop case study data base – Data collection Case-Study Tactic

Construct validity According to Yin (1989) there are three ways to increase construct validity; use of multiple sources of evidence, establish chain of evidence and having informants reviewing a draft of the study. All three of these will be used in our research, first we will use triangulation by doing observations of documentation ourselves and through interviews and secondly we are going to get the interview guide evaluated. This is to make sure it is easy to understand and that the questions are relevant. Finally there will be records of each interview so that nothing will be overseen and no details forgotten.

Internal validity According to Yin (1989) internal validity is mostly a concern for casual or explanatory studies. In which the researcher is trying to determine if one event lead to another. It also handles if the researcher have interfered with something that has occurred earlier. We are not going to work with this type validity in this thesis. External validity According to Yin (1989) there is often a problem with external validity in case studies since they usually only generalize for the study itself and not the surroundings, and to solve this it is suggested that replications should be done in similar surroundings to test the validity.

We are going to test our case on similar groups to see if any differences are noticed, according to Yin (1989) this will strengthen the external validity of our work. Reliability According to Yin (1989) reliability is the likeliness for a researcher to recreate another researcher’s study and get the same result. The goal with doing this is to reduce errors and biases in a study. To increase reliability in this thesis we are going to have good documentation of what we are doing and also we will not have any leading questions since they are negative to the reliability of our study.

One way to approach reliability problems is to do many steps so it is easier to follow for somebody from the outside (Yin, 1989). 20 EMPIRICAL DATA 4. EMPIRICAL DATA The previous chapter we explained the methodology of this thesis. In this chapter we will present the empirical data collected. We conducted several interviews and observations to collect our data. This chapter will be presented with the data collected related to research question one followed by data related to research question two.

The data will be presented in the order of the conceptual framework presented chapter two. 4. 1 Elements of Television Advertising For this data collection section we have chosen to do interviews with four people. There were two respondents in their twenties, and two respondents in their 50+. The young were both students and watch a lot of television. The older respondents are both academics and watch less television. The interview was conducted individually. First we started by showing them one television advertisement followed by a discussion of the different elements.

We showed the respondents four advertisements, Gillette Fusion, Werthers Original, Peugeot and Carlsberg all of them can be found in Appendix C. Gillette Fusion can be described as a standardized commercial, not produced in Sweden using an action appeal. Werthers Original can also be described as a standardized commercial as we also found it in German, Japanese and French. Peugeot is produced by Morkman advertising agency in Sweden; it has an everyday appeal with ordinary situations. Carlsberg is also produced in Sweden, but by Saatchi Saatchi advertising agency, and what we know also used in Spain.

Carlsberg advertisement has a humorous appeal targeting young men. Rational appeal Gillette Fusion: All respondents agree that the commercial is informative and the product is the best shaver. The shaver is a very qualitative and luxurious product, and if you use it the shaving result will be the best. A remarkable thing is that one of the older respondents said it was not enough informative and that he wants more information. One young respondent said that the mentioning of Gillette gave a lot of credit, because it is almost common sense to know that they are a premium brand.

Werthers Original: All respondents agree that this one is not so informative about the product; they only say that is sweet and creamy. One young respondents pointed out that it is not so expensive and does not need that much further information. Peugeot: All respondents think that there is no actual information about performance or economy. The commercial is showing many models, so in that way it is informative. One respondent think that the price is shown somehow through the different groups of people, and different groups have various incomes.

Carlsberg: All respondents agree on that the commercial informs about a service Carlsberg do not have, the home delivery service. They are not actually saying anything about the beer, but as the respondents understands it, the commercial is not supposed to launch a new special 21 EMPIRICAL DATA brew, it is a commercial for the brand Carlsberg itself. In the end of the commercial Carlsberg says that they would probably be the best home delivery in the world. With that Carlsberg implies that they are already probably the best beer in the world, and if they had home delivery it would also be the best.

Emotional appeal Gillette Fusion: The respondents describe it similar to expresses masculinity and you will feel good about the result after shaving and women will like it. The product is described as a value product that fulfils a rational need. Werthers Original: All respondents identified the grandfather grandson relationship to be a very warm relationship between those two. Peugeot: There are many different personalities, the young man, and, old couple, young couple, the father of a teenager and the mother of two children. This attracts different personalities among the target groups.

One respondent argues that it is a lot about creating awareness through this kind of commercial, to show the different everyday situations together with a Peugeot. Carlsberg: The respondents all say that the commercial have much of humour and “feel good”, and they will remember it because it is humorous. Some respondents argue that it is surprising, no one expect that home delivery service. One young respondents also notice that it is launched together with the World Cup in downhill skiing taking place in Sweden and therefore the commercial gives the feeling of an adventurous sportsman.

Furthermore it is said that drinking is cool and adventurous. Cultural appeal Gillette Fusion: It matches the man-culture, and the macho-culture and it is efficient in that way to promote the message. It also appeals to men with action and a fast paced commercial. One of the older respondents argue that he did not like it at all and it did not match any of his expectations, but concludes with admitting that he is affected and when looking for a razor in the super market, he might consider Gillette Fusion. Werthers Original: The respondents perceive it as a family culture bounded commercials.

This kind of relationship and culture match the western expectation of a core family. According to the respondents this enables it to work all around the western world. Peugeot: The respondents agree that this one shows many different social classes, and it feels very Swedish. With the everyday issues that can occur to ordinary people. One of the old respondents say that it is a very ordinary commercial and not as artificial as many other 22 EMPIRICAL DATA automobile commercials, it is easy as a Swede to see the function and benefit of using a Peugeot.

Carlsberg: All respondent agree that the commercial is very adapted for the western world. All people can somehow identify themselves with three adventurous guys longing for beer. Some parts of the world might not understand the wish for beer, and why they are camping on the mountain. The young respondents argue that it is effective communication because it appeals to humour in every western culture and therefore they will remember it. Language Gillette Fusion: Opinions among the respondents are divided, the younger thinks that it would loose some of the cool appeal if translated to Swedish.

The older thinks that it could easily be translated into Swedish, but agrees on that the use of English is simple, due to the fact that Sweden is in some way bilingual. Werthers Original: One young respondent thinks it is sweet and cute with Swedish, and it become easier to reach an older target group and the very young target group, which all respondents agree on. One of the older respondents agrees on the fact that using a local language is more effective, but he also add that using a Swedish grandfather figure would further increase the efficiency significantly.

Peugeot: This commercial is very suitable to have Swedish there is no speaker voice only text. It increases the efficiency of the message to have it in Swedish because of the many different target groups of this commercial. There is no difference in opinion among respondents. Carlsberg: This commercial is in English, and one young respondent argue that it would be silly if it were dubbed with Swedish. For this commercial the English also make it more exciting for the young people, because young people think that English is cool.

Also the consumers know that it is an international brand. Sound Werthers Original: This commercial is the only one dubbed to Swedish, and all respondent thinks it is the best solution. It is very important to make it in a skilful way with not showing mouth so much. All respondent think that failure in lip-synchronization is very distracting; it moves the focus from the product to the speech. One old respondent point out that she thinks because of the importance of using mother tongue when it is such a long dialogue and the target group are old or young people, in this case both. 23

EMPIRICAL DATA Scenery Gillette Fusion: The young respondent thinks that the scenery could relate to target group expectations about a top secret facility and enhance the overall appeal. The older thinks it is too artificial but agrees on the fact that it contributes to the overall surroundings. Werthers Original: All respondents describe the scenery to be a very nice environment and scenery that many can identify themselves with, a very warm and familiar atmosphere with the grandfather and grandson. Peugeot: All respondents describe that it could be anywhere in the world, it is very ordinary.

Everyone that has once been in a city can identify themselves with this commercial. Carlsberg: As one young respondent said, it is not the scenery that is the main element, it is the humour. Therefore she thinks that identification with the scenery is less important in this kind of commercial. The older respondents thought it was funny and appealing. Models/spokespersons Gillette Fusion: All respondents agree that the actors do not have to represent the target group; one respondent argues that it is more like a movie and the race of actors does not matter in this commercial.

Werthers Original: One interesting point that one respondent had was that even though they are not represented in the commercial they are indirectly, because they can think back on how it was, how their relationship with their grandparents were. They conclude with saying that everyone can identify themselves with this relation it is timeless. Peugeot: The respondents say that this commercial is very interesting in the fact that it presents many different social groups and social classes. This commercial represents the many target groups that Peugeot have.

Carlsberg: The respondents think that the target group is young men, and those are the ones presented in the commercial. 4. 2 Influencing Factors Our case study involves two units, Absolut and Unilever. The data collection for this section has been conducted through two interviews with Mrs. Cecilia Falk at Absolut and Katarina Jerndahl at Unilever Sweden. We will first present the two companies and in separate sections present the collected data. 24 EMPIRICAL DATA Absolut vodka is a Swedish premium vodka brand that is produced in Ahus and is a subsidiary to government owned Vin & Sprit. Absolut was founded in 1879 by Lars Olsson Smith.

Today Absolut is being sold in 126 countries and sales exceeded seventytwo million litres in 2003. We have come across Absolut’s remarkable marketing skills in many text books during our years in school. The fact that they are a global brand made us interested in their ideas to factors influencing the decision. Through our contact at Saatchi Saatchi Stockholm we got in touch with Cecilia Falk, Channel Marketing Director Absolut Spirits International. Unilever is a company that owns many more than 400 consumer product brands spanning over fourteen categories from home, personal care and food.

Some famous brands in Unilever’s brand portfolio are Dove, Lipton, Knorr and GB Glace. Unilever’s mission is to “add vitality to life. We meet everyday needs for nutrition; hygiene and personal care with brands that help people feel good, look good and get more out of life”. The year of 2005 Unilever had a global turnover of €39. 7 billion in 150 countries around the world, and had 206 000 employees. We found Unilever interesting because of the vast supply of products in different markets with many television advertisements airing right now.

With that as a background we contacted Unilever Sweden, and we reached Mrs. Katarina Jerndahl, Nordic Communication Channel Manager, we had e-mail and telephone correspondence. 4. 2. 1 Data Collected Sub-Unit One; Absolut Mrs. Cecilia Falk begins with talking generally about Absolut, she says that Absolut have a global brand strategy that pan over all markets where they act. Regarding communication she says that Absolut have some global concepts that they use where it fit and is relevant. Absolut is a global brand that they want to position equivalent on all the markets they act.

It is important for Absolut to work with uniformity so the consumers meet the brand similar wherever they are in the world. Mrs. Falk continues with saying that Absolut often work with global concepts on all markets, which later are adapted to make it locally relevant. Relating to the cost issue, Mrs. Falk argues that even though it is a lot more expensive to adapt commercials locally, it is more valuable due to the fact that the relevance of the message increase for their local target group. She says that it is not always possible to adapt locally due to cost, but they discuss it for each campaign.

In response to demographic, psychographic and cultural characteristics factor’s Absolut have according to Mrs. Falk a very thorough segmentation of their global consumer, where they have surveyed their target groups in different parts of the world. She continues with saying that this enables them to know which group of people that are Absolut’s specific target group. The consumers in those groups acts similar in many markets and therefore they work after that fact when developing their communication. In the market’s Absolut try to match the target group by finding some local “twists” that is culturally specific.

She argues that some markets are more homogenous than other markets, but it does not create single markets like Europe or Asia. Within Europe for example there are very mature markets, but also extremely immature markets. 25 EMPIRICAL DATA Mrs. Falk points out that there is a tremendous difference on how consumers consume the Absolut product in different markets. For example, USA is a very sophisticated cocktail market, while in east-Europe Absolut is consumed purely as it is. Absolut is aware of the many macro factors and increased consumers’ mobility, but Mrs.

Falk thinks that because Absolut have a global concept, it presents uniformity for the consumer. She further on mentions that they cluster countries that are similar to understand how to work with them. In regard to the different maturity level and education level, to know which kind of commercial that works, for example the use of sex or humour in commercials. It is very important to be familiar with those issues; otherwise Absolut could have commercials that are over one’s head, and is not perceived in the desired way. Single brand image is something that Absolut work for. Absolut have an image that should be seen through globally.

However it can express itself in different ways in different markets – to create local relevance. She further argues that the differences in markets are too different sometimes that makes it very hard to cover all different needs centrally, but one common platform is very important. Even though Absolut do not have product categories in a normal fashion, Mrs. Falk state that there are categories within the vodka segment, super premium, premium and standard. Which she relate to maturity factor, in immature markets the super premium segment do not exist, but in cocktail markets that segment is very widespread.

This factor is also considered for their global consumers’ segmentation. 4. 2. 2 Data Collected Sub-Unit Two; Unilever Mrs. Katarina Jerndahl first informed us generally about Unilever’s global communication strategies. Unilever have a global strategy for all the global brands and in most cases a centrally developed communication for Europe, US and Asia. One example Mrs. Jerndahl mentions of same communication is the communication for Dove (soap for personal care) that is the same in US and Europe. We asked Mrs. Jerndahl about the cost to produce a global standardized commercial opposed to the cost of producing an adapted local commercial.

She argues that it is a very important factor to be considered for every product commercial. Further on she explains that it is very expensive to develop a high qualitative commercial, and to develop one for each local market due to minor cultural differences would be inefficient. She continues with saying that the cost advantages of a standardized commercial are very important. About the demographic, psychographic and cultural characteristics factors, Mrs. Jerndahl states that different markets (US, Europe, and Asia) have very similar and homogenous market segments.

She further argues that the preference structure and behavioural responses are independent of geography that there is no reason to have different communication for different countries. This allows according to her a standardized approach for television commercial. She states that the real challenge is foremost in the result, the standardized commercial, so that it does not become too much of a compromise to enable it to function on many markets. The commercial should not be too mediocre and indifferent, causing it to fail to stand out enough in the commercial noise. 6 EMPIRICAL DATA She continues with saying that Unilever is always trying to avoid local adaptations and with that also cultural adaptations. They instead focus on non-geographical consumer dependence factors, for example, family culture and different social cultural. She adds that occasionally they adapt within the food category due to some local culture differences in consumption, preparation and serving of the product. This difference Unilever solves this by sometimes using two advertisements, one for northern Europe and one for southern Europe.

Sometimes they use this solution for the simple reason because of differences in taste preferences that is only introduced or relevant for few markets. The macro factors that Mrs. Jerndahl found relevant for Unilever and what she could respond to, she could unfortunately not give any answers about television commercials in the less developed countries. Fortunately, she could give answer regarding industrial countries. She argues that the economies are so similar within Europe and the consumers share lifestyle patterns that enables Unilever to treat Europe as one and the same market.

The education macro factor regarding English knowledge is not an issue for Unilever; they usually do a voice over with the local language in their commercials. According to Mrs Jerndahl the brand can be at different distances from the goal, depending on, for example, the competitor situation or the product life cycle. This may cause local solutions (adaptations) or a so called cluster approach, which means that Unilever produce two different commercials for Europe that is adapted to the current distance to the goal or product life cycle, early stage or mature stage. Mrs.

Jerndahl then continues with the importance to be consistent, brand consistency. This is due to the changed lifestyle among consumers, there is more travelling now, and work force mobility has increased significantly. About the question of single brand image, Mrs. Jerndahl begins with stating that Unilever is striving for the same brand vision (how the brand should be perceived by the consumer). As she mentioned before Unilever only adapt their television advertisement when they really have to. Unilever have many different product categories, fourteen categories spanning from home, personal care and food.

Mrs. Jerndahl claims that most of the products are used in a common way around the world, but there are as mentioned before some cultural differences in the food category. Differences in taste preference and preparations of the products force Unilever to produce adapted commercials. Even though the adaptation of those products commercial is more of a region issue than a local country issue, some products do not exist in every market. For example as she refers to it, local jewels, which is brands that only exist in a few markets, a Swedish example is GB Graddglass.

The local jewel GB Graddglass is reason for an adapted commercial in Sweden. Mrs. Jerndahl concludes with stating the three most important factors for Unilever when deciding about standardization or adaptation of a television commercial: 1. The consumers are more mobile today and therefore it is very important to be consistent in the communication between different markets. 2. For most of the brands the preference structure and behavioural responses are the same independent of geography. Therefore, there is not actually any reason to have adapted television commercials. . The cost aspect, the cost to develop high qualitative television commercials is very high. 27 DATA ANALYSIS 5. DATA ANALYSIS In this chapter the collected data will be compared with the conceptual framework that was developed in chapter two. The analysis will start with a data reduction through making a within-case analysis and then display our simplified data, where we will show how the data compares with the conceptual framework. The last activity, drawing conclusions is presented in the final chapter. 5. Elements of Television Advertising Melewar and Vemmervik (2004) found in their research that the visual and verbal elements of advertising are particularly sensitive to/and is more dependent on cultural differences. Laroche and Teng (2006) added one more element, appeal and Kelley and Turley categorized it into two broad types, rational and emotional appeal. Rational appeal Albers-Miller and Stafford (1999) described rational appeal in advertising to be when the advertising show a product’s quality, economy, value or performance. All respondent agree that Gillette Fusion and Peugeot commercials use a rational appeal.

The respondents do not think Werthers Original and Carlsberg use a rational appeal. When this is established we then can relate to what Albers-Miller and Stafford (1999) further suggested that a more informative advertising appeal may help reduce some of the uncertainty often associated with the purchase of services and products. The two older respondents agreed on that they want information and not only for all products. One young respondent pointed out regarding to the Werthers Original, that it is not an expensive or complex product, therefore it does not need to be informative. The theory goes partially in line with the collected data.

Emotional appeal Albers-Miller and Stafford (1999) claim that advertising using emotional appeal rely on feelings for effectiveness, all respondent agree that all commercials stir emotions. For example, Gillette Fusion expresses a good feeling about the result after shaving. Werthers Original commercial shows a warm grandfather-grandson relationship. The young respondents think that it is good to have an emotional appeal to create awareness, to raise interest about the product. In the Peugeot commercial it is a lot about creating awareness by showing the different everyday situations together with a Peugeot.

All respondent agree that all commercial use an emotional appeal. According to the respondents Werthers Original and Peugeot are the best commercials to convey personalities, but Gillette Fusion is very successful to convey masculinity and Carlsberg convey a adventurously and a daring personality. As Kelley and Turley (1997) claim, that emotional appeal is most effective appeal to convey personalities to consumers, all respondent agree on that. The respondents mention Peugeot as an example, because it is good in using an emotional appeal and they manage to convey many personalities.

Peugeot attract different personalities in many target groups by conveying many different personalities in their commercial. The theory is supported by the data collection. Albers-Miller and Stafford (1999) also suggest that appeals generating an emotional response result in more positive reactions. Only Carlsberg and Werthers Original manage to generate positive reactions among the respondents. Carlsberg generate positive 28 DATA ANALYSIS reactions with the humorous element. Werthers Original generate with the warm grandfather-grandson relation, which all people can relate to from some memory in during their life.

The theory is in accordance to the collected data. Cultural appeal As Laroche and Teng (2006) argued that when cultural peculiarities are embedded in advertising it will enhance the effectiveness of the commercial, according to the respondents all commercial have a cultural appeal. Gillette Fusion matches the man and macho culture that is efficient in its persuasiveness. The respondents perceive a family culture appeal in Werthers Original and it matches the western expectations of a core family. Peugeot shows a lot of social classes and appeals to Swedish culture with everyday events and issues that occur for rdinary people. It is easy as a Swede to see the function and benefit of using a Peugeot. Carlsberg appeals to humour that effectively succeed in western cultures. Laroche and Teng (2006) also suggest that when appeal does not match the traditions of the people they find differences between themselves and the characteristics of the advertisement. One of the older respondents argue that Gillette Fusion did not match his expectations, but concludes with admitting that he is affected and when choosing a razor in the super market, he might consider Gillette Fusion. The theory is not entirely in accordance to the data collection.

Language Two of our advertisements use English speech and one use only Swedish text and one use voice over with Swedish. Stewart (1994) argues that to increase the effectiveness of the communication that it should be offer information in the local language, overall the respondents are divided. The younger respondents think that it would loose some of the cool appeal if translated to Swedish, relating to Gillette Fusion and Carlsberg. All respondent agree that the use of Swedish in Werthers Original is more effective due to the fact that it is easier to reach a young and an older target group.

Peugeot only have text, but all respondent agree that Swedish is the most effective language to be able to reach so many target groups. Carlsberg commercial cannot be translated to Swedish according to the young respondents; it would become silly if translated. The respondents think depending on product and target group, and English can be used. The theory and collected data partially agree. Sound Furnell et al. (2003) claims that audio that is not synchronized with video can be distracting and viewer might fail to identify with the advertisement. Only one of our four commercials had Swedish dubbing, Werthers original.

All respondent agree that a Swedish voice over is the best solution for Werthers Original, but also agree that failure in lip-sync is very distracting, it moves the focus from the product to the speech. The data collected say it is not distracting even though it is dubbed, but the respondents add that it is distracting, consequently the theory and our collected data concur. Scenery Greenberg and Solomon (1993) say that it is important for advertisers to place a product in an environment that the consumers of a target market can identify themselves with.

Regarding to the Gillette Fusion commercial, one young respondent thinks that the scenery could fulfil the target groups’ expectations for a top secret facility where revolutionary technology is developed. The older thinks it is too artificial but agrees on the fact that it contributes to the action movie atmosphere. In Werthers Original the 29 DATA ANALYSIS environment is very nice and all respondents could identify themselves with it. The city environment that Peugeot present could be anywhere in the industrialized world, all respondent could identify themselves with it.

No respondent could identify themselves with the scenery in the Carlsberg commercial, but as one respondent point out, the scenery is not the main element it is the humour. The theory and collected data partially agree. Model/actor Nelson and Paek (2007) argue that advertising should present models similar to the target group; the respondents have same opinion but the opinion differ depending on the commercial. Gillette Fusion does not have to represent the target group according to the respondent, because it is like a short action movie and the product is in focus.

Regarding to Werthers Original one respondent said that even though she was not represented in the commercial, she was represented indirectly. With that she meant that she could recall her relationship with her grandparents to be fairly similar. She thinks everyone can identify themselves with this relation. For Peugeot and Carlsberg the respondent think that the target groups’ are represented, Peugeot with all kind of social groups and Carlsberg with the young men. The theory and collected data partially agree. The relationship is shown in table 5. . Table 5. 1: Theory and Collected Data Agree or Not Theory Gillette Fusion Werthers Original Peugeot No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes and No Yes No, but indirectly Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes N/A Yes Yes Carlsberg No Yes Yes Yes Yes No N/A No Yes Advertising using rational Yes appeal Advertising using Yes emotional appeal Convey personalities Yes Generating an emotional response Cultural peculiarities are embedded Local language Lip-sync failure Product in an familiar environment Present models similar to the target group No Yes and No No N/A Yes and No No

Table 5. 1 shows a summary of the analysis between, collected data and theory. The table display differences in theory and our collected data for some of the researched elements in television advertising. The differences are also between television advertisements. 5. 2 Influencing Factors According to Darmon et al. (1999) the feasibility and appropriateness of standardized, adapted, or completely different campaigns depend on many factors, and there is little consensus as to the key determining ones. Although there are many influencing factors, 30

DATA ANALYSIS the final decision regarding standardization/adaptation of television advertising is always the client’s. (Darmon, et al. , 1999) Cost Darmon et al. (1999) and Duncan and Ramaprasad (1995) all mention the considerable cost savings and convenience with using standardized television advertising across countries. Mrs. Falk at Absolut and Mrs. Jerndahl at Unilever both agree that it is very convenient and financially beneficial to use standardized advertising. For Absolut though, it is more valuable to be relevant to their local target group, even though it is more expensive.

In contrast at Unilever the cost savings of standardized commercial are very important. For Unilever it would be financially inefficient to adapt to every minor cultural difference, due to the high cost of high qualitative commercial. The collected data is in accordance to the theory. Demographic, psychographic and cultural characteristics Chandra, et al. (2003) argues that the feasibility of promotion standardization relies on the existence of homogenous market segments across countries. Both Absolut and Unilever agree on the existence of homogenous market segments.

Absolut have a very thorough segmentation of their global consumer, and it enables them to know which group of people that are Absolut’s specific target group. The consumers in those groups’ acts similar in many different markets and therefore Absolut work after that fact when developing communication. Absolut do not single out markets like Europe and Asia, because within Europe there are very mature markets, but also extremely immature markets. Unilever however roughly divides the markets into US, Europe, and Asia and see them as very similar and homogenous market segments.

Collected data is in accordance to theory. Further on Chandra, et al. (2003) states that consumers in cross-national market segments share common behavioural response patterns and preference structure and thus react similarly to marketing stimuli. Mrs. Falk at Absolut point out that there is a tremendous difference in how consumers consume the Absolut product in different markets, USA is a very sophisticated cocktail market, while in east-Europe Absolut is consumed purely as it is. In contrast Mrs.

Jerndahl at Unilever argues that the preference structure and behavioural responses are independent of geography so there is no reason to have different communication for different countries. This allows according to her a standardized approach for television commercial. Collected data and theory coincide. Laroche and Teng’s (2006) research has indicate that when cultural values are embedded in advertising it is easier for consumers to find commonalities between themselves and the commercial. Unilever always try to avoid cultural adaptations.

They instead focus on nongeographical consumer dependence factors, for example, family culture and different social cultural. Unilever occasionally adapt within the food category due to some local culture differences in consumption, preparation and serving of the product. Contrary to Unilever, Absolut always tries to find some local “twist” for their communication that is culturally specific for that segment. Theory and collected data partially agree. Macro factors Bradley and Sousa (2005) claims that countries that are economic similar have similarities and commonalities in their lifestyle patterns.

At Absolut they cluster countries that are similar to understand how to work with them. In regard to the different maturity level and 31 DATA ANALYSIS education level, to know which kind of commercial that works, for example how the use of sex or humour in commercials is received. Unilever argues that the economies are so similar within Europe and the consumers share lifestyle patterns that enables Unilever to treat Europe as one and the same market. Within a market a brand can be at different distances (maturity) from the goal that require a cluster approach.

Which means that Unilever produce two different commercials for Europe that is adapted to the current position or product life cycle – early stage or mature stage. The education macro factor regarding English knowledge is not an issue for Unilever; they usually do a voice over with the local language in their commercials. The collected data is in accordance to the theory. According to Darmon, et al. (1999) increase in travel and labour mobility across different cultures directly implies a more standardized form of advertising communication.

Absolut is aware of the increased consumers’ mobility, and they agree since Absolut use a standardized global concept, which presents uniformity for the consumer wherever in the world. Unilever are also aware of the importance to be consistent, brand consistency. This is due according to Mrs. Jerndahl, to the changed lifestyle among consumers, they travel more now, and work force mobility has increased significantly. The collected data is in accordance to the theory. Single brand image According to Duncan and Ramaprasad’s (1995) and Vrontis (2003) standardization should be used to promote a global single brand image.

Single brand image is something for which Absolut and Unilever work for. In Absolut they work with a global platform that is locally adapted to have local relevance, because the markets are too different sometimes and it is very hard to create relevance centrally. Unilever is striving for the same brand vision (how the brand should be perceived by the consumer). Unilever only adapt their television advertisement when they really have to, to keep brand consistency. The theory and collected data agree.

Product category Nelson and Paek (2007) suggest that a standardized television commercial should be used for products in which individuals share common consumer behaviours, and adapt for products used in a culturally specific way. Even though Absolut do not have product categories in a normal fashion, there are categories within the vodka segment, super premium, premium and standard. Absolut adapt their communication in relation to the maturity factor, in immature markets the super premium segment do not exist, but in cocktail markets that segment is very common. In contrast Unilever have many ifferent product categories, and most of the products are used in a common way around the world, but there are some cultural differences in the food category. Food was also mentioned by Nelson and Paek (2007) to be a culturally specific item. Differences in taste preference and preparations of the products force Unilever to produce adapted commercials. Even though the adaptation of those products commercial is more of a region issue than a local country issue, some products do not exist in every market. Those products are referred to by Unilever as local jewels.

The collected data is concurrent with the theory. The results from data analysis of the different factors are shown in Table 5. 2. 32 DATA ANALYSIS Table 5. 2: Theory and Collected Data Agree or Not Case: Consumer Products Unit1: Absolut Cost Important, but local relevance is more valuable Homogenous Yes, exist markets Sharing Yes, but taste preferences differ behavioural widely among markets responses Macro Yes, cluster similar countries factors Consumer Yes mobility Single brand Yes, important and they work with image global platform’s Product Yes, huge difference between mature category markets

Unit2: Unilever Very important Yes, exist Yes Yes, treats for example Europe as one market Yes Yes, almost never adapt any advertising Yes, only differences in food category The data in Table 5. 2 showed the findings in a tabulated form and divided into the six factors that we found in the theory. The differences between the units are summarized in Table 5. 2 and the differences are displayed clearly. 33 FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS 6. FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS In the previous chapter we analysed collected data with theory.

In this final chapter we will present overall findings of this study and answer our research questions and thereby fulfil the overall purpose. Finally we will suggest implications for theory, practitioners and future research. 6. 1 How can the elements of television commercial that are standardized or adapted be described? One popular element among the older respondents was the use of a rational appeal; older people want as much information as they can get. However, among the young an emotional appeal was far more appreciated, since an emotional appeal stirs positive emotions, such as love, humour and pride, also they could recall it easier.

It is very important to stir positive emotions, but also to have a link between the commercial and the target group. In that sense emotional appeal is much better to convey those individualistic personalities. In our study we found that our respondents could identify themselves better with those commercials that portrayed different personalities. Our research also shows that there is a big difference in cultural appeal among the commercials. We found that it is not so much about geographical culture, to make a commercial work in many countries the makers try to find non-geographical culture issues.

In Gillette Fusion and Werthers Original commercial this is obvious. Gillette expresses masculinity and action, which match the man-culture and macho-culture. Werthers Original shows a grandfather grandson relation, and that matches the expectations about family in the western world, in other words family culture. When different brand do not match geographically bounded culture, it enables brand owners to standardize them across countries that is a huge advantage. When it comes to language, we found that depending of target group the local language should be used.

If the target group is young people, English should definitely be used. English is regarded as cool and exciting while Swedish can be silly sometimes. Even though Sweden almost can be regarded as a bilingual country, the very young and elderly is not so good in English. Therefore if the product has an elder or very young target group, for example Werthers Original it would be more efficient to use Swedish voice. If the commercial is not skilfully made and adapted for dubbing it should be avoided, because all respondent find ubbing distracting and it moves the focus from the product to the failure in lip-synchronization. We found that regarding to scenery it is very important that the environment and atmosphere match the expectations that the consumers have. Especially the older consumers are sensitive to artificial environments. Gillette is a good example where an artificial environment match expectations, it match the expectations of a secret facility where revolutionary technology is developed.

It is very important for the consumers to be able to place the product in an environment they find relevant. One element that is not very important for consumers is to be able to relate to the actors in a commercial, but it definitely helps. Peugeot successfully present many different consumer groups, and by doing that many different people can relate to Peugeot. Even though groups of people are not directly represented, they can relate to the commercial. As in Werthers Original where they present a kind of relationship that almost all people 4 FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS can remember. When a spokesperson is used, it is more about the person using the product and when using actors it is more about using the product in an ordinary setting. Based on these findings the following conclusions can be stated: The use of emotional and rational appeal is varied among age-groups, but it also depends on the kind of product. Emotional appeal is best for conveying personalities and when the target group is young, whereas a rational appeal works better the older you get.

To facilitate standardization, non-geographical cultural appeal should be used in television commercial. For example family culture or humour should be used instead of geo-culture bounded factors, such as anything that is specific to any given culture. English can definitely be used for commercials with a focus on a young audience. Swedish should be used when targeting very young and old. Dubbing should not be used to avoid distraction from the product to the speech. Very important for consumers to identify themselves with the environment where the product is placed.

Artificial scenery should be avoided if targeting older people. Table 6. 1 presents some of our elements rated from one to five. The table present some testable ratings of from our respondents’ opinion about the importance that some elements are to them. Table 6. 1: Elements Rated 1-5 Target group Rational Appeal Emotional Appeal Cultural Appeal Language Scenery Models/actors ELEMENTS Old 5 3 5 4 4 3 Young 2 4 2 1 3 2 The rating in the table above is scaled as follow, 5 – very important, 4 – important, 3 neutral, 2 – less important, 1 – not important. 6. How can the factors that influence the decision to standardize and adapt be described? There is no reason to think cost issues to be nothing else than important. However we found that there are differences in the importance of cost among companies, and it depends on what the company find relevant. Cost is a factor companies consider for standardized commercial, but even though it is very expensive to have local relevant commercials it can be done with uniformity. We found that global platforms are used to create uniformity across countries even though it has been adapted.

It is very important with consistency in their brands so companies have to present a single brand image, and sometimes it is very hard to cover all differences centrally, but as mentioned before one 35 FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS common platform is the key. When deciding to have a standardized commercial, the real challenge is in the result, so that it does not become too much of a compromise to enable it to work across countries. Homogenous markets exist and companies are of course aware of this, but segmentation differs among companies. We found that it differs significantly between companies in how they segment markets.

Unilever for example segment the markets quite roughly as Europe, U. S. and Asia for example, and Absolut is very thorough in their segmentation. We also found that even though some companies do not have so many product categories they still can divide one product into different categories. For example, Absolut only have one product, vodka and it differs in consumption widely across countries within Europe for example there is very immature markets and mature markets – this cause Absolut to adapt their commercial to seek local relevance.

While Unilever’s for example, have many products are consumed in a similar way independent of geography – this enables Unilever to use standardized commercials. We further on found that some companies rather focus on non-geographical consumer dependence factors, like family culture and different social cultures – this allows them to use standardized commercials across different markets. However some companies try to find local “twists” to create local relevance, this cause them to adapt their commercials. The increased travelling and increase in workforce mobility make companies think about their global concepts.

All companies are aware of this, and they solve this with global concepts to present conformity and brand consistency to their consumers. It is important for companies to know the maturity and education level of countries, Absolut for example do not want to go over one’s head with a commercial that is not understood or socially accepted, like some kind of humour or use of sex. Not only consumers can be at different maturity stages, but also the products can be at different stages, for example depending on the competitor situation and the product life cycle.

One important factor to consider is which product category the product belongs to. Even though for example, Absolut only have one product it has three sub-categories, super premium, premium and standard. Unilever however have many different products in fourteen categories, but most of them are used in a common way. We found that companies take maturity in consideration in their commercial, because for example the super premium category does not exist in immature markets.

Taste preferences and preparation of food should also be considered, and differences in that may demand an adapted commercial. Based on these findings the following conclusions are stated: The cost is always an issue for all companies; if they want local relevance in specific markets it will be at a higher cost than if they standardize commercials across markets. To facilitate a standardized commercial, the company should focus on nongeographical consumer commonalities, such as humour and family culture. Increase in travel and workforce mobility forces companies to have a global

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