The term ‘violence’ itself is often used in two senses. In its narrower meaning it describes the use or threat of physical force against a victim in the form of assault or battery. But in the context of the family, there is also a wider meaning which extends to abuse beyond the more typical instances of physical assault to include any form of physical, sexual or psychological molestation or harassment which has a serious detrimental effect upon the health and well- being of the victim, albeit that there is no violence involved in the sense of physical force… The degree of severity of such behavior depends less upon its intrinsic nature than upon it being part of a pattern and upon its effect on the victim.
When in 1980 R.J. Gelles reviewed the research, he was concerned about a wide range of methodological problems, and a review of much recent research suggests that the same problem continue to plague this research area. (Besharov13)
A Social Learning Theory Perspective:
In addition, Gelles and Straus (1979) inventoried 15 theories that they felt were relevant to the understanding of violence between family members. The theories ranged from psychology or intra psychic models to macro sociological models. Further, Gelles and Straus (1979) attempted to provide an integrated theoretical account of violence between family members. However, as Gelles (1983) later noted, the attempt to integrate resulted in a model that was “long on heuristic value and equally long and complex to examine”. Consequently, Gelles moved from a model attempted to integrate a plethora of concepts to a “more middle–range theory and set of theoretical propositions.” He turned to exchange theory as a means of explaining family violence, a model that has been quite valuable in both sociological and social psychological research.
The past decade has witnessed a dramatic increase in the investigative interest in family violence. Indeed, epidemiological, evaluation, and intervention efforts have encompassed a wide range of problems. Some of these include wife battering, physical and sexual abuse of children, incest, marital rape, and domestic homicide.
Federal Bureau of investigation statistics show that as many as 13% of all homicides in the United States is husband–wife killings. And whereas husbands are responsible for substantially more violent acts, husbands and wives are relatively comparable in terms of committing domestic homicide (Gelles, 1972; Steinmetz, 1977b)
Gelles stated that it is impossible to relate adequately all these accounts of aggression to family aggression. Instead, it seems most efficacious to select empirically verifiable variables presumed to be most relevant to spouse abuse.
Violence in the family of origin
It is a fact that a disproportionate number of individuals who engage in physical aggression against their partners comes from home in which they saw their parents hit one another. In fact although a large number of factors have received attention in the etiology of spousal aggression, the intergenerational transmission of marital violence has received more attention than almost any other correlate of spouse abuse. The theoretical rationale for the intergenerational transmission of marital violence is derived from social learning theory. (Besharov 20)
Family violence is a social issue
Family violence is very common to all people. Most of the women’s are exploited and they have now accepted that they have taken it as a truth of their life. A woman thinks that to exploit them is a right to man because man is powerful candidate of the family. This happens in most of the lower class families.
Alternative perspectives on Social knowledge of family violence
The new social knowledge of family violence developed during an era when social intervention in family life has gained widespread support and created a context for defining family violence as an urgent social problem. A series of process ensured that shaped and influenced both knowledge of family violence and public responses. The nature of the problem and its etiological roots were subjected to varying interpretations and definitions. As expected, definitions, research traditions, a policy development all varied according to the interest and perspective of definer. Thus the perspectives that were influential in the development criminal justice responses to family violence reflected large concerns over the definition, etiology, and social “ownership” of family violence as a social problem. (Besharov 55, 56)
Peer group counseling represents a preferred mode of treatment for older children and adolescents, especially once the immediate crisis situation and turmoil have subsided. Because abused children often experience guilt and lowered self- esteem, support from others who have had similar experiences tends to lesson the impairment and confusion. Peers may serve to validate the victim’s self-worth and provide insights into family process and readjustment. The group may also facilitate the acquisition of social skills and the accomplishment of developmental tasks (e.g., grooming, dress, relating to peers of the same or opposite sex) that were delayed or altered by the victimization. (173)
Psychological violence in family
Family violence is of different type like psychological violence, physical violence, social violence etc. Many parents think that their children are safe but they are not safe because of the nature and behavior of others. They think that their children going to school are safe, but the teachers are violating them psychologically by scolding them and beating them in front of other students. And some time their own parents do the same unconsciously; they say anything or beat their children in front of any one and hurt their ego.
Physical violence in family
Some guests are very romantic in nature but we think that the guest is very nice to us. If we have any small girl in our house and she is left alone with the guest, he would take his chance to violate her with his deed and violate her physically without any fear of her parents and after doing so he would suddenly act differently. An incident, with a girl named Lilly living in India, could describe family violence much better. Lilly’s Cousin Brother always wants to come with his family to her house. He has two daughters, but he is very romantic in nature, when ever he looks Lilly alone he tries to violate her but he is very loyal to her family.
In Haryana there is a shortage of girls they exports the girls from other places to marry and to do household work .They export them by other places and marry them. There is a rule that a girl should marry with five men’s in one time. They have turn to sleep with her like if one person sleep with her on Monday then on Tuesday other person would get chance to sleep with her. If a girl is married with one elder son of a family then after the death of her husband she should marry with his younger brother and if her husband once more died she should marry with his father- in- law.
There was a girl named Rampyari who got married to a boy named Bilas and after the death of her husband, she got married to his younger brother Ghanshyam and then after the death of her second husband she got married to her father-in-law. Now her third husband is also dead and she has eight children. She has to wash the dirt and dump for the survival of her children. Some times she even gets scolded for what she has not done.
Our government has made many laws regarding the problem of family violence. Now girl or other person can easily make complaint to the police station and make him or her self safe. There are many rules and laws like Domestic Violence Act etc. According to this act men or women of all categories may get their rights themselves. They are able to make arrests to the victims or a person who is snatching his/her rights and doing violence to him or her .Nowadays citizens of every country are very conscious about their rights. Family violence has become less then ancient times.
Usually we consider violence as a very serious problem to be taken by people who are tolerating this behavior from their closer ones or their own parents. Children who are not so grown up to take such decisions, being a victim, they have no choice in the matter and are being forced to become a victim of violence. Family violence is a curse to the society which is demolishing it very slowly. Now females have no trust even on their own father. They always feel insecure at every place.