“Knowledge management is a discipline that promotes an integrated approach to identifying, capturing, evaluating, retrieving, and sharing all of an enterprise’s information assets. These assets may include databases, documents, policies, procedures, and previously un-captured expertise and experience in individual workers. ” * Knowledge Management, (KM) is a concept and a term that arose approximately two decades ago, roughly in 1990. Knowledge Management may be viewed in terms of: People – how do you increase the ability of an individual in the organisation to influence others with their knowledge * Processes – Its approach varies from organization to organization. There is no limit on the number of processes * Technology – It needs to be chosen only after all the requirements of a knowledge management initiative have been established. * Culture –The biggest enabler of successful knowledge-driven organizations is the establishment of a knowledge-focused culture * Structure – the business processes and organisational structures that facilitate knowledge sharing.
LITERATURE REVIEW: At present knowledge management is consider as an asset for the firm but according to (Jones, 2009) knowledge management is also related to organizational culture of the firm. This study characterized organizational culture as clan, adhocracy, market, and hierarchy culture types, however according to (Swanson, 2005) knowledge management is also useful for effective organizational management like to find the amount of time to perform specific Knowledge Management tasks using e-mail. Whereas (Park, 2007) is interested in comparison of knowledge management tactics used by private and public organizations.
Although it can be argued that public sector organizations increasingly face similar pressures as the pressures on the private sector, public sector organizations, partly because of their public ownership and limited competition, may not pursue Knowledge Management as strongly and effectively as private sector organizations. While (Dehaven, 2007) talks about the different perceptions about the knowledge management. To explore how certified knowledge managers perceive that their servant leadership style has impacted their perception of and approach to knowledge management.
But (Kangas, 2005) says about the continues initiatives for knowledge management. It says to assess the relationship between e-business organizational culture types and continuous knowledge management initiatives in an e-business organization in the transportation industry. It includes the two-part sequential phase of grounded theory included triangulation through the collection and analysis of quantitative data from a questionnaire followed by the collection and analysis of qualitative data from interviews, observations, and documents. However (Karadsheh, 1991) link risk management with knowledgement for information technology projects.
The lack of adequate knowledge management support of risk management activities has caused many project failures. Its propose a conceptual framework of the Knowledge-Based Risk Management (KBRM) process, which integrates KM and RM processes, and presents a methodology for applying the KBRM (RiskManIT) conceptual solution. However (Kasim Tatic) tals about the relationship between firm performance and knowledge management. The establishment of a direct causal relationship between knowledge management and firm performance has a week theoretical and empirical background.
Although the relationship between knowledge management and performance indicators has been discussed at length (exchange value, market value, balance sheet, etc), few firms have been able to establish a causal relationship between knowledge management activities and firm performance, but (Anderson, 2009) says that Knowledge management has become one of the most important trends in business, to understand the success and failure of knowledge management, firms must identify and assess the organizational capabilities required for the effort to prosper.
Organizations develop knowledge infrastructure to drive desired behaviors, yet knowledge workers develop processes to circumvent the organization’s infrastructure (cultural and structural barriers). Conclusions and implications: Knowledge management has been hailed as a new discipline. Unfortunately, the interpretation of the construct knowledge management is often confused with the introduction of information technology as a solution to capture knowledge.
A significant statistical correlation between the knowledge management practices and firm performance, suggesting that the firms with tendency for introduction knowledge management practices show greater firm performance. The research has established that large firms achieve statistically higher score than small and medium-seized firms in the overall knowledge management scale as well as in individual sub- scales.