A Thesis Proposal Presented to Sonia A. Arenillo, Ph. D In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Subject Research 200 By Norie Lynn R. Molo Master of Arts in Education Major in Educational Management A. Y. 2011 – 2012 Chapter I Introduction Background of the Study Today, our life is made so much easier by so much information. This information explosion available through the internet and printed materials everywhere has made the ability to read a very important asset.
Effective study habits enable students to accomplish more in a comparatively shorter time. Wide variations in the methods of studying typically practiced by the students have been universally noted. The time of day preferred, time laps between study sessions, noise or music as background, physical and emotional condition when studying, are but few of many factors considered by a learning individual. According to Horton-Murillo (1992), when it comes to academic achievement, every child is unique. His learning style is one aspect of his uniqueness.
Teachers must recognize the knowledge and respect every child’s individual learning style. Learning styles include cognitive, effective, and physiological domains. Learners have individual differences; each has inner strength and capacities. Knowing this will help the learners focus more on ways more effective to them. Studying plays a vital role in the attainment of the educational goals of the students. Some teachers wonder why some of their students do not make any significant progress in their work.
One probable factor behind this is that most teachers fail to help their students acquire the needed attitude towards the class. The extent of students learning in academics may be determined by the grades a student earns for a period of learning. If a learner earns high grades it is concluded that they may also have learned a lot while low grades indicates low learning. For students of any age, studying is the factuality of life. Tests and exams commonly raise stress levels. Given heavy workloads, many students fret about burnout due to the pressures of achieving good grades.
Some adopt a very organized and calm approach and study consistently through the year, others tend to leave things more or less to the last moment and then panic and try and cram in the work while some students are able to study effortlessly. Often accompanied by a lack of slumber, exercise, and fresh air, the stress of worrying about results can take its toll on academic performance, study habits, and overall cognitive functioning. Students usually become aware of study skills when their learning habits are limiting their potential, don’t suit their personality, or are causing significant levels of anxiety before exams.
Skills or study strategies are approaches applied to learning. As human beings, we are constantly in one learning process after the other. And it is therefore important that we understand that what might work for us doesn’t necessarily have to work for another. However, it is still important that students should be consistent along with their studies. According to the theories of study habits, there are broadly two types of students. The first category is of the students who study for a shorter duration, have a good concentration and are able to get good scores without much effort.
The second category includes students who have a rather poor concentration, and need a lot of hard work to get good scores. With a regular study habit you will find that the child will study at a time that it is deemed normal to study. The quality of a nation depends upon the quality of its citizens. The quality of citizens depends on the quality of their education. And the quality of education, besides other factors, depends upon study habits and study attitude of the learners. Quality of education is reflected through academic achievement which is a function of study habits and study attitude of the students.
Thus to enhance the quality of education, it is necessary to improve the study habits and study attitudes of the students. To improve study habits and study attitude, factors, which affect these characteristics adversely are needed to be identified. Identification of these factors may lead towards remedial measures. To identify factors having negative effect on study habits and study attitudes, to propose remedial measures and to employ strategies for the development of good study habits and study attitudes, well organized guidance services are needed in schools. Statement of the Problem
The study tries to determine the Gender Disparity in Study Habits of First Year High School Students of Community Vocational High School. Specifically, it answers the following questions: 1. What is the extent of the study habits of male student respondents in terms of: 1. 1 studying with friends 1. 2 studying with music 1. 3 studying while eating? 2. What is the extent of the study habits of female student respondents in terms of: 2. 1 studying with friends 2. 2 studying with music 2. 3 studying while eating? 3. Is there a significant difference in the extent of the study habits of male and female student respondents in terms of: . 1 studying with friends 2. 2 studying with music 2. 3 studying while eating? Statement of the Hypothesis There is no significant difference in the extent of the study habits of male and female student respondents in terms of: 2. 1 studying with friends 2. 2 studying with music 2. 3 studying while eating. Significance of the Study The researcher believes that students, particularly from Community Vocational High School will benefit from the findings of this study since the study provides basis for awareness and better understanding of how their current study habits affected their academic performance.
Likewise, this study will serve as a guide for them to improve their study habits and learning skills. The study will also aid teachers to understand better the diversity of learning of their students. As such, it is hoped that they could develop more effective methodologies in teaching their subject matter. The study will also help guidance counsellors through providing a more focused and factual knowledge on the study habits of the students. This will increase their understanding on the interplay of the variables studied in this research.
Such knowledge is hoped to help the Guidance and Counselling practitioners towards the development and implementation of more effective programs in consideration of these variables. This study will help the parents to understand and deal with their offspring’s way of studying. Parents, especially those who have their sons and daughters with them while studying are called on to have stronger support in facilitating their needs. They are encouraged to provide not only material and monetary assistance but also moral support.
This study may also be useful to future researchers on the subject of learning. They may be able to use the result of the study as reference in further researches. Scope and Limitations This study will focus on the study habits of the first year male and female students. The variables that will be used include extent of the study habits of the male and female student respondents in terms of studying with friends, studying with music and studying while eating. It will be conducted on the school year 2012 – 2013 at Community Vocational High School, Masipit, Calapan City, Oriental Mindoro.
Definition of Terms Gender – It refers to a range of characteristics distinguishing between male and female. Gender Disparity – It is defined as a distinction of biological and/or physiological characteristics typically associated with either males or females of a species in general. In the study of humans, socio-political issues arise in classifying whether a sex difference results from the biology of gender. Study Habit – It is the time devoted for studying regularly and also taking into considerations the surroundings and companions.
First Year High School Students – It refers to the respondents of the study. Community Vocational High School – It is the location where the study be conducted. Studying with friends – It is learning with companions like classmates, schoolmates, siblings, etc. Studying with music – It is a study habit wherein learning takes place when there is background music. Studying while eating – It is the study habit wherein learning takes place when munching food. Theoretical Framework Many studies say that learning are better acquired and mastered as soon as the learner attends to it.
Gestalt psychology mentions the Law of Proximity referring to the way in which he tends to form groups according to the way they are spaced, with the nearer once being grouped together. As applied to learning, this refers to the closeness in space or in time. Furthermore, it explains why it is easier to remember recent events and hence more easily joined with the interest of the present in a common Gestalt In application to learning process, immediate and regular study periods and doing school requirements tend to result in a better performance than delayed and erratic study periods do.
Diverse study techniques, even for the improvement of memory stress the importance of immediacy in remembering and learning (Tria, et. Al. , 1998). Thorndike’s Law of Exercise further supports this kind of principle asserting that, other things being equal, the more frequent a modifiable connection between a situation and response is used, the stronger is the connection. When a modifiable connection between a situation and a response is not being use over a period of time, the strength of that connection is weakened.
A behaviour that is stimulated over regular periods will tend to be repeated leading to habit formation. A student who has developed this kind of behaviour, in this case, in terms of having regular and scheduled study periods and follows certain methods in studying proves to have better performance. According to humanistic theories set forth by Carl Rogers, motivation might come from within an individual without any thought to the external reward. Students receive their own internal reward through an increase in self-esteem and sense of achievement when they reach their desired goal.
They may just feel the desire to succeed based on factors such as their own interest in an activity or the feeling of satisfaction that is achieved when they complete the necessary steps to achieve the desired accomplishment. This drive is called internal or intrinsic motivation, which means there are no outside forces that dictate whether an individual will ultimately achieve his goal. He does not attempt to achieve to receive an external reward works toward the intrinsic value associated with the success of the project.
Students will be motivated to perform desired behaviours, and neither punishment nor rewards are necessary to motivate the individual to succeed. Conceptual Framework FIGURE 1. HYPOTHESIZED DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE VARIABLES OF THE STUDY The figure presents the variables of the study. The left frame represents the independent variable which includes the Extent of the Study Habits of Male Student Respondents while the right frame represents the dependent variable which includes the Extent of the Study Habits of Female Student Respondents. The double headed arrow shows the significant difference between the two variables.
Chapter II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND RELATED STUDIES Related Literature Carey (2010) stated that many study skills courses insist that students find a specific place, a study room or a quiet corner of the library, to take their work. The research finds just the opposite. In one classic 1978 experiment, psychologists found that college students who studied a list of 40 vocabulary words in two different rooms — one windowless and cluttered, the other modern, with a view on a courtyard — did far better on a test than students who studied the words twice, in the same room.
Later studies have confirmed the finding, for a variety of topics. He further stated that the brain makes subtle associations between what it is studying and the background sensations it has at the time, Carey stressed that regardless of whether those perceptions are conscious. It colors the terms of the Versailles Treaty with the wasted fluorescent glow of the dorm study room or the elements of the Marshall Plan with the jade-curtain shade of the willow tree in the backyard. Forcing the brain to make multiple associations with the same material may, in effect, give that information more neural scaffolding.
Varying the type of material studied in a single sitting — alternating, for example, among vocabulary, reading and speaking in a new language — seems to leave a deeper impression on the brain than does concentrating on just one skill at a time. Musicians have known this for years, and their practice sessions often include a mix of scales, musical pieces and rhythmic work. Many athletes, too, routinely mix their workouts with strength, speed and skill drills. The advantages of this approach to studying can be striking, in some topic areas. Schulten (2010) emphasized that instead of sticking to one study location, imply alternating the room where a person studies improves retention. So does studying distinct but related skills or concepts in one sitting, rather than focusing intensely on a single thing. Take the notion that children have specific learning styles, that some are “visual learners” and others are auditory; some are “left-brain” students, others “right-brain. ” According to Crilly (2001), Successful students are able to balance social activities with good study habits. A diversion from studies will alleviate stress and help prevent from becoming fatigued.
He said that a student should make sure that he must take a break for an hour after studies to meet with friends, to play some cards, work out at the gym, or to gab with anew acquaintance. For this way, that student will find concentration when he does study, if he plans a social activity afterwards. He further stated that, “To develop a healthy social life, develop routine study habits. After supper, lug your books and homework to the library, find a comfortable and quiet niche, and study for two or three hours, taking intermittent 10 minute breaks every 45 minutes or so. Making friends with whom you share similar study habits, and share a table or a study space with them would be a best way in developing study habits as what Crilly said. Burke (2009) cited that there are reasons for a student to study his lessons well. First among these reasons is that the student usually needs to have good grades to enter a school of his role. The grades a students got in college is such more important than the most students realize. Business employees pay particular attention to grades; most often students with high scholastic performance are given preferences.
Another reason is that being successful because of studying well will give a student many satisfactions. A good student is happy because he is relived of worries that go along with poor performance. He also got a lot of satisfactions out of knowing how to go about the job of studying and of knowing he is doing his work well. Another reason is that once a student gets in a subject deeply enough to have some mastery of it, he will discover that it is fascinating in its own right. Then studying ceased to be chore, it is something that the student would look forward to and enjoy doing.
He takes pleasure in knowing more and more about the subject. According to Kahayon (2002) man is different from animals; he has the ability to think symbolically. In fact, he can recognize qualities, form, concepts, recalls, remember and memorize solutions until he forms habits. If study habits are formed during the early years, some educational problems could be solved such as those involving the difficulty of pupils in solving mathematical problems and their reading difficulty. He averred that academic failure caused by reading difficulty gives rise to feelings of inferiority and frustrations.
Because of this, teachers and parents should guide students in order to form good study habits. One of the three main factors affect the success in study is the ability in studying. This ability involves knowing what to study and how to study. Brucal (2008) cited that the 2007 Global monitoring report provide a global picture of gender disparities in secondary education telling us that the higher the level of education, the greater the gender disparities. Almost invariably, the gender differences in participation level are greater than the primary education. Related Studies
Saclao (2005) conducted a comparative analysis of the study habits and learning environment of students in public and private secondary schools in Cabanatuan City and their relationship to academic achievements. The study was aimed to find out the study habits and learning environment of selected high school students and the relationship to academic achievement. It also sought to find the significant relationship between study habits, learning environment, sex, grade point average and type of school. The findings of the study were: 1. Students from private school had different study habits than those from public schools; 2.
There is no significant difference between the study habits of male and female students; 3. There is significant relationship between study habits and learning environments; 4. There is a significant relationship between habits and the grade point average. In the light of the above findings, the following conclusions drawn: 1. Students from both public and private high schools have some good study habits; 2. Students gender do not affect their study habits; 3. Students from the private school have more favourable learning environment compared to those who come from the public school. 4. Learning environment affects the students study habits.
Based on the foregoing findings and conclusions, the researcher was prompted to suggest the following recommendations: 1. Teacher should encourage students to develop good study habits. The students should be taught how to study properly in order to avoid learning difficulties and low academic achievement. The study habit of students from private schools should be sustained and enriched further; 2. The school should organize student’s workshops on how to study properly; 3. The formation of study groups if recommended to encourage students to always study everyday; 4. A study on factors that affect s the study habits is recommended.
In a study conducted by Valdez (2009) entitled “Common Study Habits Practiced by the Fourth Year Students in Selected Public and Private High Schools”. The study examined the significant difference between the self-report of the students and the perceptions of their teachers on the extent of practice of the study habits by the students. In her study she found out that; 1. The fourth year students common study habits in order of their ranks were: a. Relies in oneself when studying; b. Analyses the questions thoroughly before answering them; c. Works with a will to produce results; d. Talks over the problems with teachers if there are any; . Stops at a good breaking point after finishing a unit of work if possible; f. Has a plan of work each day; g. Reviews answers well before passing the answer sheets; h. Tries to get work done on time. i. Participate in class/group discussion j. Makes a preliminary survey before reading the chapter in detail; k. Keep notes in one subject altogether; l. Sticks to the plan of works; m. Does a review activity for a lesson the night before the examination; n. Finds work interesting. 2. The fourth Year students believed that they practiced the study habits to a great extent while their teachers perceived that they did so to a little extent; 3.
The Fourth Year students experience some problems in home, library and classrooms in relation to their practice of study habits. Garcia (2001) in the study she conducted about “Study habits of the Grade Six Pupils in The District of San Rafael, Division of Bulacan: Implications to Parents-Teachers Relationship, School Year 2000-2001” arrived at the following conclusions: 1. That while the greater majority of the grade six pupils in San Rafael District practiced the different study activities in the seven areas of concern, here was still some of them showed that they never practiced some of the study habits in the different areas concern. . That although these pupils claimed the various study activities, the extent of their practice is not satisfactory. The results of the study reveal that the different study habits only “often” performed by the respondents. 3. That a close relationship between the teachers and parents is very much need in order to succeed in a cooperative endeavour for the development of the pupils. Odejar (2005) in her masteral thesis conducted which was entitled “The Influences of classroom Management and Child-Rearing Practices in the Study Habits of Secondary Students at Remedios High School, Lubao, Pampanga”, revealed that: 1.
The respondents often consider the time schedule to study regularly, the place to study, the choice of the subjects, to study first and follow up a part of formulating the study habits, whereas the preparations of materials needed was occasionally considered. 2. The respondents agreed that child rearing practices such as parental authority, guidance and support, expectations and values influence the formulation of the study habits except for parental affection that was fairly agreed. 3. The exists no significant difference between parents child rearing practices and the development of the study habits of the students.
Apulog (2006) study entitled “Study Habits in relation to Academic Achievement of Grade Six Pupils in the District of Pala for School Year 2005-2006 found out that the grade six pupils have poor study habits. He revealed that the pupils’ low socio-economic background and education of parents seem to go hand in hand with their poor study habits. Understandings of proper study habits appear to be difficult to attain in an adverse climate of study where in the prime concerns are of survival and needs.
Carino (2006) conducted a study entitled “Study Habits of Grade Six Children of Working and Non-working Mothers in Relation to Scholastic Achievement of the District of Tiwi, School Year 2005-2006”. Her study showed that there is generally low correlation between the study habits of children of working and non-working mothers and their scholastic achievements both academic and non-academic. The study seemed to show that the grade six pupils had not properly established the study habits. Chapter III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research Design The study will employ the descriptive comparative method of research. According to www. ecs. org (2011), the descriptive comparative method is a research design in which data are collected to describe and compare two or more groups of participants or entities. In this study, the extents of study habits of male and female students are compared. Respondents of the Study The respondents of the study will be the selected first year high school students in Community Vocational High School, SY 2012-2013.
They will be composed of 50 students of which there will be 25 male and 25 female. Sampling Technique The respondents will be chosen using simple random sampling. Sloven’s formula will be employed to determine the sample size of the study. Sloven’s Formula: n = N 1 + Ne2 Where: n =sample size N =population e =margin of error (0. 05) Research Instrument A self structured questionnaire will be used in the study. The questionnaire will be composed of three parts. Part I will deal on the items that measure the extent of study habits in terms of studying with friends.
Part II will deal on the items that measure the extent of study habits in terms of studying with music. Part III will deal on the items that measure the extent of study habits in terms of studying while eating Reliability of the Instrument The instrument will be pre-tested to determine its reliability coefficient to 10 non respondents of the study over a ten-day interval using test-retest method. Data Gathering Procedure A letter of request to conduct the study will be sent to the principal of Community Vocational High School. Upon its approval, the researcher will conduct the study.
After the reliability will be tested, the researcher will administer the three part questionnaire to the respondents. Retrieval will be done personally by the researcher. Statistical Treatment of Data The data gathered will be treated statistically using descriptive statistics such as frequency, percentage and mean. To test the hypothesis of the study, T-test will be used. The formulas that will be employed are the following: 1. Frequency and Percentage Distribution % = f/n x 100% Where% = percentage f = frequency of respondents N = total number of respondents
This formula will be used in determining the frequency and percentage distribution of the respondents in this study in terms of scores on the three – part questionnaire. 2. T-test for Uncorrelated Mean WhereX1=mean of the first group X2=mean of the second group SD1=variance of the first group SD2=variance of the second group N1= population of the first group N2=population of the second group The formula for t-test will be used to determine the difference between the extent of study habits of male and female first year high school students.