Federal government of the United States

Organizational Performance Indicator Framework A Guide to Results-Based Budgeting in the Philippines Manila, April 2012 This document was prepared with assistance from Delegation to the Philippines EUROPEAN UNION OPIF Reference Guide © 2012 by Department of Budget and Management All rights reserved. Any part of this book may be used and reproduced, provided proper acknowledgement is made.

OPIF Reference Guide: Organizational Performance Indicator Framework A Guide to Results-Based Budgeting in the Philippines Published by: Department of Budget and Management Gen. Solano St. , San Miguel, Manila Tel: (+632) 490 1000 Email: [email protected] gov. ph www. dbm. gov. ph Printed in the Philippines ii OPIF Reference Guide Message I am pleased to share this OPIF Reference Guide to our partners in government, in Congress, and the public. The Guide is the latest addition to

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DBM’s tools for helping its partners better understand the budget and use it to make government accountable for results. When we talk of accountability for results, we mean the performance of government agencies in using public funds to fulfill the Philippine Development Plan—and the agencies’ impact therein—through the execution of programs and projects under the National Budget. Accountability for results goes beyond reporting how and where the agency budget was spent; it focuses on how public spending improved the ways through which an agency delivered key services to the public.

These are the questions that sum up what results are about, and what the OPIF Reference Guide seeks to answer: did the National Government—and the public it represents—get the best value for the money entrusted to an agency for delivering goods or services? Did the agency spend its funds according to its priorities and provide services at the right time? Did the agency’s expenditure performance in service delivery contribute to the attainment of sector and societal outcomes—including poverty reduction and good governance—and help the economy grow?

In answering these questions, an agency should be able to tell a performance story: what, why, when, and how an agency delivered services to the public. Ultimately, these questions should serve as basis for planning, budget allocation, and performance monitoring, as well as reporting and evaluation in the whole of government. I am confident that the tools in this Guide will ensure that the activities identified and funded through the National Budget will truly support the key result areas embodied in the Aquino Administration’s Social Contract with the Filipino People.

Through this Guide, DBM reaffirms its commitment to improve public accountability and to manage for results, especially by helping government agencies use the budget for delivering direct, immediate, and substantial benefits to all Filipinos, especially the poor and vulnerable groups. iii OPIF Reference Guide Abbreviations ABM BARs BEDs BP BPR BPMS COA CO CP CSC DA DBM DENR DepEd DOF DOH DOLE DOT

DOTC DPWH EER EO ERB FEs FY GAA GAS GFI GOCC GOP ICC IWP LGU Logframe MFO MOOE MTEF NEDA NEP ODAPR OPIF OSEC PAP Agency Budget Matrix Budget Accountability Reports Budget Execution Documents Business Plan Budget Performance Review Budget Preparation Management System Commission on Audit Capital Outlay Corporate Plan Civil Service Commission Department of Agriculture Department of Budget and Management Department of Environment and Natural Resources Department of Education Department of Finance Department of Health Department of Labor and Employment Department of Tourism Department of Transportation and Communications Department of Public Works and Highways Efficiency and Effectiveness Review Executive Order Executive Review Board Forward Estimates Fiscal Year General Appropriations Act General Administration and Support Government Financial Institution Government-Owned or -Controlled Corporation Government of the Philippines Investment Coordinating Committee Individual Work Plan Local Government Unit Logical Framework Major Final Output Maintenance and Other Operating Expenses Medium-Term Expenditure Framework National Economic and Development Authority National Expenditure Program Official Development Assistance Portfolio Review Organizational Performance Indicator Framework Office of the Secretary Programs, Activities and Projects iv OPIF Reference Guide PDP PEM PI PIP PS RBM RM RLIP SARO SPMS STO Philippine Development Plan Public Expenditure Management Performance Indicator Public Investment Program Personal Services Results-Based Management Results Matrices Retirement and Life Insurance Premiums Special Allotment Release Order Strategic Performance Management System Support To Operations v OPIF Reference Guide Table of Contents Message ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ii Abbreviations …………………………………………………………………………………………………… iv Table of Contents ……………………………………………………………………………………………… vi Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1 Chapter 1 – OPIF Policy Framework ……………………………………………………………………….. 4 The OPIF Context ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Why OPIF and why does it matter?…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5 What is OPIF? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6 What are the key objectives of OPIF? ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 7 Where are we now? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 7 What is the way forward? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 9

OPIF and Managing for Results in the GOP………………………………………………………………….. 11 Planning for Results…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 12 Budgeting for Results ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 14 Implementing for Results ………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………… 16 Monitoring and Evaluating for Results …………………………………………………………………………………………… 16

Role of Agencies in OPIF and RBM ……………………………………………………………………………… 17 Chapter 2 – Basic OPIF Concepts …………………………………………………………………………. 19 What is the results chain? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 19 What is a logical framework? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 20 What is the results framework? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 21 What are the key elements of OPIF? ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 22 How can agencies be accountable for outcomes? …………………………………………………………………………… 22 How to make OPIF operational? …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 23 Chapter 3 – Constructing the OPIF Logframe …………………………………………………………. 26 The Agency OPIF Logframe ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 26 What is the Agency OPIF logframe? ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 26 What is the purpose of the OPIF logframe? ……………………………………………………………………………………. 27 Why formulate the OPIF logframe? ………………………………………………………………….. ………………………….. 27 What references can be used in formulating the logframe? …………………………………………………………….. 28 Societal Goals ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 28 What are Societal Goals? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 28 What are examples of Societal Goals? …………………………………………………………………………………………… 28 Sector Outcomes ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 29 What are Sector Outcomes? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 29 What are examples of Sector Outcomes? ………………………………………………………………………………………. 29

Organizational Outcomes ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 30 What are Organizational Outcomes? …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 30 How to derive Organizational Outcomes? ……………………………………………………………………………………… 30 What are examples of Organizational Outcomes? ………………………………………………………………………….. 31 Major Final Outputs …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 32 What is an MFO? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 32 How to derive MFOs? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 32 What are examples of MFOs? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 33 How is capital creation relevant to defining MFOs? ………………………………………………………………………… 34 Programs, Activities, and Projects………………………………………………………………………………. 35 What are PAPs? …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 35 What are examples of PAPs? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 35 The Consolidated Logframe ………………………………………………………………………………………. 36 vi OPIF Reference Guide What is a Consolidated Logframe? ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 36 What is the purpose of a consolidated logframe? …………………………………………………………………………… 37 How to prepare a consolidated logframe? ……………………………………………………………………………………. 37 How to reflect outsourcing arrangements in the logframe? …………………………………………………………….. 38 Can OPIF logframes be revised? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 39 Chapter 4 – Specification of MFO Performance Indicators ……………………………………….. 41 What are performance indicators for MFOs? …………………………………………………………………………………. 41 How to formulate PIs? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 42 What are examples of MFO PIs? …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 43 Why develop a PI set? …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 43 How to formulate PIs? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 43 Performance Target Setting ………………………………………………………………………………………. 5 What is a Performance Target?…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 45 How to express a Performance Target? …………………………………………………………………………………………. 45 How to derive Performance Targets? ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 45 Checklist for MFO PI Specification ……………………………………………………………………………… 46 Chapter 5 – Cascading OPIF to Corporate Planning …………………………………………………. 48 Why cascade OPIF? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 48 What is OPIF cascading? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 48 What is corporate planning? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 49 What are the uses of corporate planning? …………………………………………………………………………………….. 51 What are the key steps in corporate planning? ………………………………………………………………………………. 1 What does corporate planning entail?…………………………………………………………………………………………… 52 What is the duration of the plans? ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 53 What is the difference between the CP, BP, and UWP? …………………………………………………………………… 53 What is a Corporate Plan?……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 53 What is a Business Plan? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 54 What is a Unit Work Plan? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 54 Who is responsible for cascading OPIF?…………………………………………………………………………………………. 55 Chapter 6 – Estimating the Budget for MFOs …………………………………………………………. 56 Budget for MFOs ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 56 Why does it matter to formulate the budget based on MFOs? …………………………………………………………. 56 What is the relevance of PAP structure to MFOs? ………………………………………………………………………….. 57 Components of the Budget ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 57 What is GAS? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 57 What is STO? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 58 What is Operations?……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 8 What are Projects? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 59 What is Personal Services? …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 59 What is MOOE? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 60 What is Capital Outlay? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 61 How is the budget for an MFO estimated? ……………………………………………………………………………………. 61 Sources of Budget for MFOs ……………………………………………………………………………………… 63 What are New General Appropriations? ………………………………………………………………………………………… 63 What are Automatic Appropriations? ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 64 What is RLIP? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 64 What are Continuing Appropriations? ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 64 What are Budgetary Adjustments? ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 65 What is ‘Off Budget’ funding of MFOs? …………………………………………………………………………………………. 65 PAPs Restructuring and Budget Estimation …………………………………………………………………. 65 Why restructure PAPs? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 65 How are PAPs restructured? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 66 Chapter 7 – Performance Monitoring, Evaluation, and Reporting ……………………………… 70 vii OPIF Reference Guide Why evaluate performance of departments/agencies? …………………………………………………………………… 70 What is the Budget Performance Review? ………………………………………………………………….. ………………… 71 What are the uses of the BPR?……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 71 How is performance in MFO delivery assessed? …………………………………………………………………………….. 72 How is performance in project delivery assessed? ………………………………………………………………………….. 73 References………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 75 APPENDICES Appendix 1. Results Matrices and Cascading Logframes ……………………………………………….. 76 Appendix 2. OPIF Logframe Review and Cascading OPIF Checklists………………………………… 77 Appendix 3. MFO, PIs, and PAPs Review and Analysis Instructions and Worksheet ………….. 80 Appendix 4.

Budget Performance Review Instructions …………………………………………………. 86 Appendix 5. Glossary ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 92 FIGURES Figure 1. Performance-Based Contracting and Budgeting in the GOP ……………………………….. 10 Figure 2. Whole-of-GOP Results-Based Management (RBM) Framework …………………………… 12 Figure 3. The Results Framework ……………………………………………………………………………………. 21 Figure 4. Influence and Accountability in the Results Framework…………………………………….. 23 Figure 5.

The Agency OPIF Logframe and DBM Focus……………………………………………………… 26 Figure 6: PDP, OPIF, and Corporate Planning ………………………………………………………………….. 50 Figure 7: Cascading Plans – Corporate Planning Components …………………………………………… 52 TABLES Table 1 – Role of Oversight and Implementing Agencies in OPIF……………………………………….. 18 Table 2. Results Chain……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 20 Table 3. Example of How NOT to Word a Performance Indicator …………………………………….. 44 Table 4.

Example of How to Word a Performance Indicator ……………………………………………. 44 Table 6. Performance Target, Actual Performance, and Variance …………………………………….. 72 viii OPIF Reference Guide Introduction In preparing the National Budget, a commonly asked question among budget officials, legislators, civil society, and the public is: What are we getting for public money spent? Building public schools, hiring rural health workers, and constructing farm-to-market roads are examples of what we can get from public spending. But others may go on to ask: So what if activities have been implemented and outputs have been counted?

Both questions are important because they reflect a shift from perceiving public agencies as accountable for carrying out activities or programs, to making them accountable for results: delivering outputs and outcomes that will ultimately improve the quality of life of all Filipinos—particularly the poor and vulnerable—through enhancing the quality of public services. In 2000, the Department of Budget and Management (DBM) introduced the Organizational Performance Indicator Framework (OPIF) to improve the way the budget is allocated, reported, and spent toward greater accountability and transparency in the delivery of public services. Before the adoption of OPIF, agency budget requests were largely focused on the cost of activities, personnel, equipment, and other resources to conduct programs and projects (inputs and activities), rather than focusing on the results (outputs and outcomes) of agency performance and their impact on improving the quality of lives of people.

Budget decisions were mostly based on what a government agency needed to implement activities, but not on how much and how well it delivered goods or services (major final outputs) to external clients and how it transformed communities. For many years, agency budgets increased incrementally with little consideration of program duplication or overlaps, changes in agency mandate, or the impact of agency activities on attaining sector and societal outcomes. The situation made it difficult to draw a real picture of government-wide performance in reducing poverty, fighting corruption, making the economy grow, or attaining other development objectives. With the adoption of OPIF, or what is generally known as results-based budgeting, the focus of budgeting in the Government of the Philippines (GOP) has shifted from inputs or activities to results.

Budgeting has also evolved to address the so what question, which signifies that outputs from budgets spent must align with and result in higher level impacts toward attaining the GOP’s desired societal goal of inclusive growth and poverty reduction. This focus on results is further strengthened by Executive Order 43, which defines the Aquino Administration’s five key result areas (KRAs) to guide departments/agencies in formulating their plans, programs, and 1 OPIF Reference Guide projects. The KRAs include: • • • • • Transparent, accountable, and participatory governance; Poverty reduction and empowerment of the poor and vulnerable; Rapid, inclusive, and sustained economic growth; Just and lasting peace and the rule of law; and Integrity of the environment and climate change adaptation and mitigation.

The OPIF Reference Guide seeks to provide a common reference material and a set of quality standards in the use of OPIF as a system for achieving and reporting outputs and outcomes from public spending. Specifically, it aims to help users understand: • key OPIF concepts and processes; • how OPIF is applied to budgeting, planning, reporting, monitoring, and evaluation of agency performance; and • why OPIF is a valuable tool for resource allocation, performance or results management, and accountability. This Guide is designed primarily for the technical staff of DBM and government agencies. The DBM can use the Guide to enhance their work in reviewing agency budget proposals and assessing agency performance in delivering major final outputs, among others.

Government managers, planners, and budget officers/staff, on the other hand, can use the Guide to apply the technical processes of OPIF in their agencies–-from formulating the OPIF logical framework and estimating budget proposals, to cascading performance targets to organizational units as part of the corporate and business planning exercises. Congress and other oversight agencies will also find the Guide useful in exercising their roles in monitoring and evaluating government performance, since OPIF is now used for reporting government outputs. Civil society will likewise benefit from using the Guide to broaden their understanding of the results-based budgeting process and to further engage government agencies in improving the quality of public services. The development of the OPIF Guide is based on the following considerations: First, the OPIF system is homegrown and indigenized.

Technical assistance from various sources has been provided to the GOP, based on the experiences of countries which have adopted results-based budgeting. This assistance provided valuable inputs that brought OPIF to its status today, with technical inputs adjusted to suit institutional conditions and the policy environment in the GOP. Second, implementing the OPIF is achieved through learning by doing. While 2 OPIF Reference Guide existing literature is replete with available methods and tools on performanceor results-based management, capacity building can only be more effective if concerned staff go through the actual process of implementing the OPIF system. Third, OPIF is a work in progress.

The innovative nature of OPIF requires shifts in established practices and procedures, knowledge and capacity, and valueorientation of OPIF implementers. As such, changes in the current budgeting system cannot be done overnight. To understand the policy context of OPIF, the Guide begins with a discussion of public expenditure management reforms that underpin OPIF. This chapter is followed by a presentation on key OPIF concepts and the process of constructing the department/agency logframe. The other chapters elaborate on key OPIF processes: the specification of MFO performance indicators, MFO budget estimation, and budget performance monitoring, evaluation, and reporting. Detailed instructions and procedural steps for these processes are provided in the Appendices.

To maintain the Guide’s conceptual and operational relevance, DBM aims to continually review and update this Guide, given feedback from its partners. While this Guide is a stand-alone document, it also complements current (e. g. , Philippine Development Plan 2011-2016) and other results-oriented literature of the GOP (e. g. , PDP Results Matrices and Public Investment Plan). 3 OPIF Reference Guide Chapter 1 – OPIF Policy Framework The OPIF Context The Organizational Performance Indicator Framework (OPIF) is a results-based management approach being mainstreamed by the Government of the Philippines (GOP) as one of the pillars of its public expenditure management (PEM) reforms.

Through OPIF and other reforms, the PEM seeks to change the orientation of expenditure management from focusing on rules and processes to focusing on three key objectives or outcomes: • Fiscal discipline – living within the means or resources available to the government; • Allocative efficiency – spending money on the right things or right priorities; and • Operational efficiency – obtaining the best value for the money or resources available. Under the PEM system, the budget is an instrument for allocating public resources within the available fiscal space and ensuring that priority is given to expenditures that are effectively oriented toward achieving development results—the outputs, outcomes, or impacts of a development intervention.

In applying OPIF to the budget process, the government seeks to improve its results focus, specifically to: • attain national development and sector outcomes (allocative efficiency) during budget preparation and execution; • capacitate departments/agencies to get the most value for money in the way they provide goods and services to the public (operational efficiency); and • use available resources for priority expenditures (fiscal discipline). In the past decade, the GOP has implemented other reforms that complement OPIF, particularly the multiyear budgeting or Medium-Term Expenditure Framework, which involves projecting the forward expenditure requirements of existing policies and projects for the next three years.

These projections serve as an initial point for budgeting for a department/agency, as well as an estimate of the fiscal space available to government. The GOP also enhanced the Public Investment Program so that public investment priorities more realistically reflect available budgetary resources and the hierarchy of government objectives. Through procurement reforms, the government is working to fight corruption and to improve operational efficiency by using public bidding as the default arrangement for the purchase of goods and services by 4 OPIF Reference Guide departments/agencies. Recently, zero-based budgeting or program review/evaluation has also been added to the armory of budgeting techniques that facilitate the achievement of PEM reform outcomes. Why OPIF and why does it matter?

OPIF seeks to provide surrogate or proxy measures to the profit and price mechanism that characterizes the private sector and drives performance improvements in private firms. It aims to give information on whether department/agency outputs are able to deliver the government’s desired outcomes in a cost-effective way. Performance and productivity in the private sector are largely driven by the price mechanism and profit motive. Private firms (providers) produce goods or services that customers (purchasers) want and are willing to pay for. In return, customers expect a certain standard of quantity and quality from the provider through a particular good or service.

Firms can thus decide to produce more or less of the good or service and set the price depending on customer behavior, or remain cost-efficient and competitive in the market. When investments fail to yield expected profits or returns, owners have the flexibility to cut personnel and other costs or stop production altogether. In effect, the increased demand from paying customers and the opportunity to increase returns from investments often drive firms to perform more efficiently. Public sector agencies do not have the profit or price mechanism that signal whether the goods and services they produce are desirable to the communities they serve, or whether they are cost-effective and competitive.

They cannot simply stop delivering services when the demand is low or the cost is high, because there are important factors to OPIF seeks to drive consider such as the needs of underserved performance efficiency communities, geographical location, improvements by improving emergencies, and department/agency service accountability for results in mandates, among others. The security of tenure government agencies. for public sector employees can also become an obstacle to improving performance efficiency (e. g. , poor performing employees cannot be fired easily). The provider-purchaser relationship common in the private sector is relevant to enhancing performance management in the public sector. It can be used to define the relationship between a department/agency (as provider) and the community or client that it serves (as purchaser) in a way that will spur performance improvements based on accountability and public trust. 5 OPIF Reference Guide This is where OPIF comes in.

It provides a performance or results management framework that the national government and its clients and stakeholders can use to address the demand for greater transparency and accountability in the use of public resources. All of the following elements are needed for OPIF to work effectively as a results framework: 1. Agreement on the outputs that a government agency delivers along with their expected contribution to the attainment of sector and societal outcomes; 2. Choice and publication of clear indicators for measuring department/agency performance in delivering outputs, as well as guiding clients—including civil society—on what to expect in terms of output quantity and quality; and 3. Use of performance information (measurement data and analysis) to influence decisions on policy, plans, and resource allocation.

The third element cannot be overemphasized enough because organizations—public or private alike—are more likely to improve their delivery of outputs when they see that performance information will influence future decisions on incentives or, alternatively, sanctions for performance. What is OPIF? As a planning and budgeting tool, OPIF seeks to align goods and services supported by the budget—and which a department/agency delivers to external clients—with the desired outcomes that government aims to achieve or influence. It requires the specification and reporting of objective and measurable performance indicators to show the extent to which a department/agency’s major final outputs (MFOs) influence desired outcomes identified in the national development plan.

As a results-based management tool, OPIF can help departments/agencies define and establish priority expenditures through a logical process of: • deciding on and planning outcomes; • establishing relevant performance targets and measures; • implementing activities to achieve outputs and outcomes; and • monitoring, evaluating, and reporting on results. OPIF is an approach to expenditure management that directs resources for major final outputs (MFOs) toward results and measures department/agency performance by key quality, quantity, timeliness, and cost indicators. 6 OPIF Reference Guide OPIF therefore encourages policymakers to focus on strategic national and sector priorities in allocating scarce budgetary resources. It makes government managers accountable for the strategies they develop and the outputs they are expected to deliver in pursuit of these priorities.

OPIF also increases government employees’ understanding of how their individual outputs count toward achieving national outcomes. All these lead to building a performance-oriented culture in the public sector. What are the key objectives of OPIF? OPIF seeks to improve accountability for results at the following levels: • National Government. OPIF strengthens the alignment of department/agency MFOs with sector outcomes and societal goals identified in the Philippine Development Plan and Millennium Development Goals, so that results may be reported by the President and Congress to the public. • Department/Agency. OPIF shifts the emphasis of department/agency accountability from the implementation of activities funded through the Budget to MFOs delivered to clients.

It requires a department/agency to report to the President and Congress on the question: What outputs were delivered for the inputs provided? • Unit. OPIF requires division chiefs/department managers to identify spending programs that support specific MFOs. It also makes them accountable for developing business strategies for delivering MFOs in the most cost-effective manner. • Individual. OPIF helps government OPIF shifts the focus of employees understand how the individual department/agency activities/tasks they perform and the accountability to MFOs outputs they are accountable for delivered with respect to contribute directly to the attainment of activities funded through the unit outputs, department MFOs, sector Budget. outcomes, and societal goals. Where are we now?

Before the adoption of OPIF, department/agency budget proposals were largely focused on the cost of activities, personnel, equipment, and other resources to conduct programs and projects (inputs and activities), rather than the results (outputs and outcomes) of department/agency performance and their impact on improving the quality of lives, especially of the poor. Budget decisions were based more on what a department/agency needed to implement their activities, but less on how much and how well it delivered goods or services to external clients and the community. 7 OPIF Reference Guide For many years, department/agency budgets increased incrementally with little consideration of program duplication or overlaps, changes in agency mandate, or the impact of agency activities on attaining sector and societal goals. This situation has made it difficult to measure the performance of departments/agencies and their contribution to achieving development outcomes and goals.

It is thus important to clarify what performance means and how it should be measured, especially when the meaning of the term has evolved over time: There was a time when evidence of “performance” in the field of job training would have been “dollars appropriated or spent” (an input), or number of training courses offered (an activity). An advance in performance measurement occurred when agencies and program began reporting the number who attended or—even better—graduated from training courses (output). The last stage in developing indicators of performance was asking and answering such questions as: “Did the trainees get a job—or keep the job for three months or a year? And what kind job did they get? ” It was these kinds of questions that led to measuring outcomes. According to Smith and Grinker,2 performance has several dimensions: inputs, activities, outputs, and outcomes. Those dimensions can be turned into a logic model or performance reform hierarchy, which shows a map or blueprint of what is required to produce the desired outcomes. Performance can be improved through a set of different but related reforms or activities at each level in the hierarchy, so that each level is a foundation for moving to the next, more complex level. At the bottom of the hierarchy is performance measurement, which involves greater use of quality and quantity indicators to measure performance and generate information for decision makers.

Performance measurement, while necessary, is rarely sufficient. Thus the second level, performance management, builds on performance measurement by using information from assessment activities to plan, monitor, and evaluate performance, and to hold managers accountable for doing so. The third level, performance-based contracting, may involve a subcontracted vendor to provide the service, as well as financial incentives to reward good performance or penalize providers for failing to achieve outcomes. Finally, in performance-based budgeting, budgets show not only how funds will be spent but what outcomes the expenditures will help produce, and will thus require

Dennis Smith and William Grinker, “The Promise and Pitfalls of Performance-Based Contracting” (paper presented at the 25th Annual Research Conference of the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management, Washington, D. C. , November 5-8, 2003), 8. 2 Smith, “The Promise and Pitfalls,” 8-11. 8 1 OPIF Reference Guide performance management and performance-based contracting systems that are robust and reliable. The performance reform hierarchy can be used to examine the Philippine experience in PEM reforms. Since 2007, departments/agencies in the GOP have been presenting their activities, outputs, outcomes, and performance indicators in a logical framework, which is published annually in the OPIF Book of Outputs.

Additionally, MFOs and indicators are reflected in agency budget proposals, execution, and accountability reports to DBM. However, the quality of performance or results information are found to be generally poor, while the resulting analyses are limited due to insufficient specification of indicators and targets among many departments/agencies. MFO performance indicators are a mix of outcome, output, activity, and process indicators, which indicate confusion about the focus of accountability of departments/agencies. Many PAPs continue to exist but are not aligned with MFOs, and thus do not contribute much to the attainment of sector outcomes and societal goals.

Management systems for analyzing and integrating performance information remain largely inadequate in many departments, including oversight agencies. All these suggest the need to improve the capacity of departments/agencies to move from performance measurement to the next level (i. e. , performance management), and to strengthen the capacity of oversight agencies to use results information for policy, planning, programming, and budgeting decisions. What is the way forward? Because OPIF is homegrown and indigenized in the GOP, performance reform gaps should be viewed as opportunities for improvement. Once the gaps are addressed, the way forward is clear: performance-based contracting, and ultimately, performance-based budgeting.

As depicted in Figure 1, DBM (as purchaser) acts on behalf of the Performance contracts President and the public to negotiate a convert targets into formal performance contract with departments/agencies agreements between the (as provider) to produce or deliver MFOs on a government (represented by value for money basis, and according to a set of the President) and its performance indicators and targets. departments/agencies, and A performance contract will convert targets into formal agreements between the government and its departments/agencies (or external providers) between senior managers and their staff. 9 OPIF Reference Guide on the amounts they will spend and how much they will produce. Such contracts can be in the form of performance agreements, which can be negotiated between the President and department/agency heads, or they can be in the form of the OPIF Book of Outputs, which details the performance targets of the department/agency for the year. Figure 1. Performance-Based Contracting and Budgeting in the GOP Outputs DBM negotiates implicit performance based contract in behalf of the President and the public Departments/Agencies report on output indicators that feed into budget preparation Performance indicators and targets negotiated between departments/agencies and DBM based on funding levels Budget by MFO DBM formulates Budget with department/ agency using historical performance as a guide

Performance contracts can also extend downward to the departments/agencies, negotiated between senior managers and their subordinates. They can support the cascading of performance targets to corporate and unit work plans, thereby ensuring that department/agency outputs are aligned with sector outcomes. Likewise, performance contracts can be used to monitor the performance of departments/agencies as providers, as well as compare targets with results that feed 3 Allen Schick, “Getting Performance Measures to Measure Up,” In Quicker, Better Cheaper? Managing Performance in American Government, ed. Dall Forsythe (Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 2001), 48. 10 OPIF Reference Guide ack to budget formulation. At this level, the budget process is used as a mechanism to control standards and ensure the quality of the performance of departments/agencies in delivering MFOs. Consequently, improvements in the quality of service will move the departments/agencies to the next level: performance- or results-based budgeting, which requires a system for rewarding good performance and for penalizing providers for failing to achieve outcomes. More importantly, the performance of departments/agencies in delivering outputs is assessed for impact on attaining desired sector and societal outcomes. OPIF and Managing for Results in the GOP

Building a public school, paving a road, and hiring rural health workers are considered outputs of public spending. So what are their outcomes? How did such outputs contribute to meeting the government’s desired outcomes? As laid out in Executive Order 434 and the 2011-2016 Philippine Development Plan, the planning, budgeting, abd implementation of programs, as well as performance monitoring, evaluation, and reporting in the GOP will be guided by a results-based management (RBM) framework that is focused on the results of public spending. RBM is a management strategy focusing on performance and the achievement of outputs, outcomes, and impacts. As an RBM tool, OPIF focuses on the outputs of public spending. To determine how these outputs influence higher-level objectives of the government, OPIF is integrated with the RBM systems of other oversight agencies. Figure 2 illustrates the key elements of an integrated RBM system for the entire government. It shows how the planning, programming, budgeting, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation systems of oversight agencies and implementing departments/agencies are linked and harmonized to drive governmentwide performance improvements and deliver results. Executive Order No. 43, Pursuing our Contract with the Filipino People through the Reorganization of the Cabinet Clusters (May 13, 2011). Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Glossary of Key Terms in Evaluation and Results-Based Management (France: OECD, 2002), accessed November 25, 2011, http://www. oecd. org/dataoecd/29/21/2754804. pdf 11 4 OPIF Reference Guide Figure 2. Whole-of-GOP Results-Based Management (RBM) Framework PLAN FOR RESULTS • President’s Guideposts (16 areas for transformative leadership) • PDP • RM • PIP • • • • • BUDGET FOR RESULTS MTEF OPIF GAA /NEP ABM/SARO ICC Programming (only FAPs consistent with plan are approved) EVALUATE RESULTS •SER •MDG Results • • • • • MONITOR RESULTS ODA Review BPR RM Monitoring CSC SPMS COA Audit Reports IMPLEMENT FOR RESULTS • Agency PAPs • ICC Reevaluation

Source: NEDA, 2011-2016 PDP Results Matrices Planning for Results In formulating their plans, departments/agencies must be guided by the President’s Guideposts, the Philippine Development Plan and its Results Matrices, and the Public Investment Plan. The President’s Guideposts or Social Contract with the Filipino People refers to the 16point action agenda or areas for transformational leadership aimed for by the Aquino Administration and translated into Key Result Areas (KRAs) under Executive Order 43. The five KRAs and their objectives are: 1. Transparent, accountable, and participatory governance – to institutionalize 12 OPIF Reference Guide 2. 3. 4. 5. pen, transparent, accountable, and inclusive governance; Poverty reduction and empowerment of the poor and vulnerable – to translate the gains from good governance into direct, immediate, and substantial benefits for the poor; Rapid, inclusive, and sustained economic growth – to achieve rapid economic expansion that generates jobs and livelihood for and increases the income of the poor, while moving away from the boom-and-bust cycle of the economic performance of the past; Just and lasting peace and the rule of law – to attain just, comprehensive, and lasting peace within the bounds of our law; and Integrity of the environment and climate change adaptation and mitigation – to promote sustainable natural resource utilization and climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies and measures among national government agencies, local government units and their respective communities, the general public, and other stakeholders. A key instrument in the planning process is the Philippine Development Plan (PDP), which lays down the broad societal goals and specifies the sector goals and priorities of the government within the medium term.

These priorities are articulated in the Results The PDP lays down the broad Matrices (RM) as desired societal goals and societal and sector goals and sector outcomes, outputs, indicators, and targets priorities of the Government to achieve the 16-point action agenda within the within the medium term. medium term. Prepared by NEDA, the RM translates the societal goals and sector outcomes in the PDP into measurable targets and outputs for implementation. The 2011-2016 PDP, for example, serves as the government’s blueprint that will translate the Social Contract with the Filipino People into efficient, effective, and responsive actions that are achievable within the term of the Aquino Administration. Based on the PDP and its accompanying RM compendium, a list of prioritized programs and projects is prepared, covering ongoing and new capital investments and all programs of government.

The list, known as the Public Investment Program (PIP), is a rolling multi-year public investment program that serves as a critical input to the annual national budget formulation process. Basically, the PIP translates the PDP into a core set of priority programs and projects to be implemented by the national government, Government-Owned or -Controlled Corporations (GOCCs), Government Financial Institutions (GFIs), and other offices of the government within the medium term. 13 OPIF Reference Guide In drawing the list of major projects and activities for the PIP, each government agency must review its PAPs to ensure that these are aligned with MFOs it is mandated to deliver under OPIF.

Major programs are identified and prioritized using the Efficiency and Effectiveness Review (EER) framework, which considers the responsiveness of programs and projects based on relevance, efficiency, effectiveness and The PIP is a list of priority impact, and sustainability in supporting sector programs and projects that outcomes. contribute to the societal goals, sector outcomes, and outputs spelled out in the Philippine Development Plan. The information from the EER also feeds into the periodic updating of the rolling PIP and the strategic prioritization of public expenditures as part of the MTEF. Budgeting for Results To further strengthen the linkage between planning and budgeting, the GOP introduced the MTEF and OPIF in 2000.

The Medium Term Expenditure Framework (MTEF) is a three-year rolling expenditure framework, which supports budget formulation by linking the investment programming process with the annual budget call. It frames the government’s policy and expenditure prioritization for resource allocation and is prepared ahead of the budget preparation phase. Moreover, it involves a MTEF is a planning and process of setting fiscal targets and allocating budgeting framework that resources to strategic priorities within these provides a three-year fiscal targets to the government-wide system. perspective to the decisionmaking process during MTEF seeks to strengthen results management budget preparation. in government planning and budgeting through the Paper on Budget Strategy and forward estimates (FEs).

The Paper on Budget Strategy (PBS) links budget allocation with the agenda of the national government to identify the priority areas for spending, as well as to incorporate the sectoral and regional implications in the dimension and distribution of the budget. Fiscal headroom is allocated to these priorities. This prioritization process ensures that PAPs included in the budget contribute to the attainment of the PDP. The MTEF also includes FEs of approved projects and expenditure policies that are matched with the medium-term revenue estimate and spending priorities, which are derived from the PDP and the PIP. Through the FEs, the MTEF is able to indicate the estimated cost of ongoing programs and proposed new projects on a three-year basis, as well as inform decision-makers of the cumulative requirements and 14 OPIF Reference Guide xpenditure commitments to be considered in overall expenditure levels. FEs show the future impact of current decisions and budget choices, and are updated to account for changes in budget policies and economic parameters. Updating FEs is done before the budget preparation process starts and involves a five-year perspective: past year, current year, budget year, and two out-years inclusive of a new out-year for the next budget preparation. Forward estimates are projections or estimation of the future costs of existing policies. Guided by the priorities identified in the PDP, RM, PIP, and MTEF, DBM issues an annual budget call to all departments/agencies.

In their budget proposals, departments/agencies must show that PAPs and corresponding budget estimates are aligned with their MFOs and with the KRAs under Executive Order 43 to ensure greater efficiency and value for money in spending government resources. Budget requests are evaluated by DBM and presented to the Cabinet and the President for approval. Approved requests are consolidated into the National Expenditure Program (NEP), a document which reflects the annual program of estimated expenditures presented by the national government to Congress for spending authority. After its deliberations on the proposed budget, Congress grants spending authority through the General Appropriations Act (GAA).

Using the GAA as legal basis, DBM oversees the release of funds to departments/agencies for the implementation of their PAPs required for delivering their MFOs. DBM, in coordination with departments/agencies, prepares the Agency Budget Matrix (ABM) to disaggregate department/agency budgets into items needing and not needing clearance for release. This process helps determine which items will be issued special allotment release orders (SAROs) and which amounts will be released comprehensively under the ABM. To continuously improve the results-focus in government spending, the Investment Coordination Committee (ICC) reviews proposed foreign-assisted projects (FAPs), including projects of departments/agencies with a cost of P500 million and above and/or those that will entail borrowing.

Only those projects found consistent with the PDP and PIP are approved for programming and budgeting. 15 OPIF Reference Guide Implementing for Results Departments/agencies are responsible for the implementation of PAPs that are aligned with MFOs, KRAs, and sector outcomes in the PDP Results Matrices. They are also tasked to establish results-based monitoring and reporting systems to review and report their progress using MFO performance indicators and targets indicated in their approved budget. Government managers thus need to develop corporate strategies and corresponding indicators to measure internal outputs that will drive performance in MFO delivery.

Monitoring and Evaluating for Results Results are monitored and evaluated in the GOP through the Official Development Assistance Portfolio Review, the Budget Performance Review, the Results Matrices monitoring, the Strategic Performance Management System, and audit reports. The Official Development Assistance Portfolio Review (ODAPR) is conducted annually by NEDA to review all ongoing foreign-assisted programs and projects and their financing. The review is done to further improve the quality of ODA performance and the relevance of projects to national priorities in the PIP and PDP. DBM, in coordination with departments/agencies, conducts the Budget Performance Review (BPR).

The BPR focuses on the performance of a department/agency in delivering MFOs and is conducted midyear and annually. It analyzes financial and physical performance data (MFO performance BPR provides the President indicators and targets) captured from agency and Congress with a budget accountability reports submitted to summary report on the DBM. At year-end, all financial and physical financial and physical performance information is analyzed and performance of government consolidated as a report to the President and agencies in delivering their Congress on the performance of major final outputs. departments/agencies in delivering MFOs. Oversight agencies have their own M;E systems to monitor results of GOP performance.

NEDA monitors results by analyzing indicators with baseline levels and targets set in the Results Matrices, which were used in formulating PDP and department plans. The Civil Service Commission (CSC) develops the Strategic Performance Management System (SPMS) for monitoring and assessing individual employee performance. The SPMS uses outcome indicators to determine how an employee’s performance contributes to the agency’s goals. Lastly, the Commission on Audit (COA) conducts an audit of the financial performance of departments/agencies and produces annual audit reports for each government 16 OPIF Reference Guide agency and for the whole of government. NEDA also facilitates the annual review of the results of the PDP and the reporting of results through the Socioeconomic Report (SER).

The SER summarizes and monitors the government’s achievements during the year to meet the goals and targets set in the PDP, RM, and PIP, as well as its commitments to the Millennium Development Goals. The SER also spells out the outlook and policy directions for the coming year. Role of Agencies in OPIF and RBM OPIF has laid the foundation for a performance measurement and management system that links the budget with the plan. In order to build a strong results-oriented culture in government as guided by the GOP RBM framework, the roles of oversight and implementing agencies—particularly in OPIF results monitoring—need to be clarified. A larger capacity for results-based monitoring and evaluation should also be developed in all departments/agencies.

In addition, results information should be systematically analyzed and used in policy, planning, and budget decisions by oversight bodies, Congress, and the President. Oversight agencies and implementing departments/agencies have the following key roles in OPIF: • DBM ensures that the allocation of funding to MFOs is consistent with government priorities reflected in the PDP, RM, PIP, and MTEF. It monitors the delivery of MFOs in accordance with performance targets. • NEDA evaluates societal and sector goals and measures the effectiveness of MFO impacts on sector and societal outcomes. • DOF funds the budget through borrowing and taxes subject to the performance contract with the government. • COA performs accounting and audit functions, including a performance audit hat validates the integrity of OPIF information. • CSC promotes the continuous improvement of individual performance through a performance management system linked to OPIF. • Implementing departments/agencies deliver MFOs to clients and monitors corporate and individual performance as reflected in performance contracts. 17 OPIF Reference Guide Table 1 summarizes the OPIF function of oversight and implementing agencies in OPIF and their role in results monitoring. Table 1 – Role of Oversight and Implementing Agencies in OPIF OPIF Function Evaluates effectiveness of MFO impacts on societal goals and sector goals — measures effectiveness Results Monitoring Role

Develops and runs an econometric model to measure contribution of MFOs in delivering change at the national level Monitors the performance of the mix of MFOs produced by government agencies to deliver societal goals and sector goals in terms of broad economic and social statistics Monitors the delivery of MFOs in accordance with performance targets agreed upon with departments/agencies Carries out analysis to ensure performance targets are realistic and reported performance is valid Supervises revenue operations and manages all public debt NEDA DBM DOF Facilitates formulation of PDP Negotiates delivery of MFOs on a value for money basis from departments/agencies – negotiates performance contracts Ensures allocation of funding to MFOs is consistent with MTEF/FEs, PDP, and PIP Funds the budget through borrowing and taxes subject to a performance contract with he government Promotes continuous improvement through an individual performance incentive system; Collaborates with DBM on a performancebased remuneration framework linked to delivery of MFOs Quality assurance, accounting, and auditing, including performance audits; ensures accuracy of departments/agencies’ reported performance MFO delivery, continuous improvement through monitoring internal performance, and strategy implementation subject to performance contract or agreement Manages personnel performance evaluation CSC Monitors the reporting of performance by departments/agencies and ensures the quality of the numbers produced Gathers data and reports statistics against performance targets agreed upon with DBM and uses this data to continuously improve its own performance Provides performance reports on the delivery of its MFOs to the President and Congress to promote transparency and accountability 18 Implementing Agencies COA OPIF Reference Guide Chapter 2 – Basic OPIF Concepts This Chapter presents the key concepts that underpin the OPIF system (results chain, logical framework, performance indicators, etc. , and describes the process needed to make the OPIF system operational in departments/agencies. It describes how OPIF evolved into a homegrown and indigenized framework for results-based planning, budgeting, and performance management while remaining consistent with RBM principles. What are results? OPIF is concerned with results, particularly with MFOs delivered by a department/agency and funded through the Budget. The PDP Results Matrices describes results as follows: Development results, or simply results, are outputs, outcomes, and impacts of a development intervention. Outputs are the products, capital goods, and services that result from a development intervention.

Outcomes are the likely or achieved short-term and medium-term effects of an intervention’s outputs. These are observable behavioral and institutional changes, usually as the result of coordinated short-term investments in individual and organizational capacity-building for key development stakeholders. Lastly, impacts are the positive and negative primary and secondary long-term effects—both intended and unintended—produced directly or indirectly by development interventions. The transition of development results from outputs to outcomes, specifically between the completion of output toward the achievement of impact, is then a change in a developmental condition, as depicted in the results chain. 6 What is the results chain?

From the discussion above, results chain refers to the causal sequence of development interventions that stipulates the necessary sequence to achieve desired objectives— beginning with inputs moving through activities and outputs, and culminating in outcome, impacts and feedback. 7 It reflects a hierarchy of objectives linked by a causal chain or logic (means-and-end relationship) of planned development interventions8 United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Results Based Management: Concepts and Methodology, 2002, accessed November 25, 2011 at http://www. undp. org. 7 OECD, Glossary, 33. 8 Development intervention refers to a policy, plan, or program implemented by government. 19 6 OPIF Reference Guide rom activities that translate inputs to outputs (goods and services) leading to medium- (organizational and sector outcomes) and long-term objectives (societal goals). Table 2 shows the linkage between different levels of objectives. Table 2. Results Chain How should this be implemented? Inputs Activities What should be produced? Outputs What outcomes do we expect from this investment? Short-term Medium-term outcomes outcomes Why should we do this? Long-term impacts Source: NEDA, 2011-2016 PDP Results Matrices From the RBM perspective, the implementation of activities is significant only in terms of what it leads to or what follows from the process of planning, managing, and implementing. In OPIF, this means that activities funded through the budget are effective only if they deliver the MFOs they are expected to deliver. The results chain can thus guide the government and its stakeholders in understanding why it is important to measure results. It can help draw out evidence on whether the government has been successful in performing its core functions. Figure 3 shows how the results chain and logical framework apply to the results framework and to the OPIF logframe. What is a logical framework? A logical framework, or logframe for short, is a management tool used to improve the design of interventions, most often at the project level.

It involves identifying strategic elements (inputs, outputs, outcomes, impact) and their causal relationships, indicators, and the assumptions or risks that may influence success and failure. It thus facilitates planning, execution, and evaluation of a development intervention. 10 The term logframe was adopted and indigenized to OPIF to strengthen the linkage between planning and budgeting. Specifically, the OPIF logframe guides both DBM and departments/agencies in identifying priorities for spending. This means funding only those activities and projects that directly link or contribute to MFO delivery and separating them from unlinked activities and projects that do not drive MFO attainment. (See discussion in Chapter 3 and Chapter 6. In other words, the OPIF logframe tells a performance story of why, what, and how a department/agency delivers goods and services to its external clients. 9 10 UNDP, Results Based Management. OECD, Glossary, 27. 20 OPIF Reference Guide Figure 3. The Results Framework Societal Goal If sector outcomes are attained, then this should contribute to the overall societal goal. If organizational outcomes are achieved, then this should contribute to the sector outcomes. Sector Outcome Why Organizational Outcome What and Who How MFOs If outputs are produced, then organizational outcomes are achieved. If activities are conducted, then MFOs can be produced or delivered to external clients. PAPs If adequate inputs are provided, then activities can be implemented. What is the results framework?

Departments/agencies deal with results at various levels (outputs, outcomes, impacts) and at various stages (planning, programming, budgeting, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation). To help agencies manage results effectively, a results matrix (containing the results statements, indicators, and targets) is incorporated in each of the PDP chapters, thereby shifting the focus from only inputs and outputs to outcomes and impacts. 11 The results framework is a planning tool that illustrates how the results statements at the PDP level (sector and sub-sector outcomes) will link to the OPIF logframes (outputs and organizational outcomes) at the organizational level.

It also describes the focus of NEDA in managing for development results—subsector/sector outcomes and societal goal at both the planning and M;E stages—and the focus of DBM, such as PAPs, MFOs and organizational outcomes at the programming, budgeting, and M;E stages. As such, it shows the application of the logical framework at different levels (PDP, sector, agency, or project) which are linked in a cascading pattern to guide M;E and performance measurement at each level. 11 NEDA, Results Matrices, 3. 21 OPIF Reference Guide Appendix 1 illustrates how each PDP Chapter cascades to sector results matrices, and how each sector results matrix cascades to the department/agency OPIF logframe. What are the key elements of OPIF?

The following elements serve as building blocks of OPIF and other RBM tools: • PAPs – an activity or integrated group of activities undertaken to realize the outputs and outcomes of a department/agency; • MFOs – goods or services provided to external clients to achieve a common outcome; • Organizational outcomes – short- to medium- term benefits to clients and communities as a result of MFO delivery; • Sector outcomes – longer-term benefits for the sector from the initiatives of the department/agency; • Societal goal – societal benefits from sector initiatives; • Performance indicator – a characteristic of performance (i. e. , quantity, quality, timeliness and cost) that is to be measured; • Performance target – a predetermined level (numerical target) of quantity, quality, timeliness, and cost of an output; nd • Performance measurement – use of methods to measure incremental progress indicators from baselines to target. How can agencies be accountable for outcomes? It is often difficult to establish a direct link—cause and effect—between the goods and services provided by a department/agency and the high-level sector/societal outcomes that it seeks to influence. There is a range of factors—including nongovernment influences—that may impact on these high-level objectives. Moreover, the impacts may take a long time to take effect. The impacts which are most important to society are unlikely to be wholly within the control of the department/agency.

It may even be difficult to determine the extent to which impacts or outcomes are influenced by the department’s/agency’s services because of the difficulty of measuring and attributing changes in results. Any assessment of organizational performance will need to recognize the extent to which the department/agency can influence each level of outcomes and goals. The logframe links societal goals to sector outcomes through a series of increasingly shorter-term, organizational outcomes. Therefore, as one moves down in the logframe, the capacity to influence results increases, and this is matched by a greater level of accountability as illustrated in Figure 4. Because the department’s/agency’s degree of control over its PAPs and MFOs is strong, it must be held fully accountable 22

OPIF Reference Guide for the delivery of PAPs and MFOs. Figure 4. Influence and Accountability in the Results Framework Societal Goals Sector Outcomes Which leads to… Organizational Outcomes Which leads to… MFOs Which leads to… PAPs In contrast, numerous variables arise between what any given department/agency actually does and the achievement of sector outcomes and societal goals and. As such, the department/agency cannot be expected to be solely accountable for the attainment of sector outcomes and societal goals. How to make OPIF operational? The OPIF process involves the following steps on how to make the OPIF system operational in departments/agencies: 1.

Reviewing the mandate and functions to formulate the organizational outcomes that the department/agency is expected to achieve or contribute to and the MFOs it is expected to deliver for that purpose. This involves a consultative process between the department and its attached agencies, as well as the DBM. The national government may opt to not fund obsolete 23 Increasing Capacity to Influence Which leads to… Increasing Level of Accountability OPIF Reference Guide mandates/functions; hence, a department/agency must continually review the relevance of its mandate and refocus them as necessary. 2. Identifying linkages between the department’s/agency’s organizational outcomes and the sector outcomes and societal goals enunciated in the Philippine Development Plan, key result areas, sector plans, policies, etc. 3.

Documenting PAPs, MFOs, and organizational outcomes in an OPIF logical framework, which shows the linkages between resource inputs, programs, activities, and projects that the department/agency implements to produce its MFOs, as well as the organizational outcomes for which it is mandated. 4. Identifying performance indicators and targets for each MFO to show how MFOs contribute to the achievement of the department’s/agency’s mandate. The indicators will be used to hold the department/agency accountable to the President, Congress, the public, and other stakeholders for carrying out its mandate. 5. Approving the OPIF logframe as executed by the department secretary/agency head and the secretary of DBM.

The approval process for logframes of agencies under the administrative supervision of and/or attachment to departments shall consider the provisions in Section 28, Chapter 7, Book IV of the 1987 Administrative Code. 6. Cascading OPIF to planning to ensure alignment of plans from the OPIF level (organizational outcomes and MFOs) down to the department/agency corporate, business, and individual work plans. The corporate plan, business plan, and unit/individual work plans are key management tools for cascading OPIF—particularly performance targets—in the department/agency. 7. Preparing the budget by MFOs, including associated PIs, in accordance with the annual budget call. To improve cost attribution and expenditure prioritization, it may be necessary to structure PAPs to establish the link of specific activities to the appropriate MFOs.

The budget estimate for MFOs is published in the OPIF Book of Outputs for the fiscal year concerned. 8. OPIF performance monitoring, evaluation, and reporting to the President and Congress. The periodic performance reports required of departments/agencies under Executive Order 292, or the Administrative Code of 1987, will include budget performance based on MFO performance indicators and targets. The key steps to making the OPIF system operational are discussed in the subsequent chapters. Once the foundations of OPIF have been well-established (i. e. , when department/agency logframes, including well-defined MFOs and performance 24 OPIF Reference Guide ndicators/targets are fully in place), it is envisioned that MFOs will become the basis for the whole-of-government’s annual budgetary request to Congress and the structure of the General Appropriations Act. This means that Congress will review in concrete terms the outputs of departments, the results delivered, and the budget requests according to MFOs. 25 OPIF Reference Guide Chapter 3 – Constructing the OPIF Logframe Chapter 3 describes the components of the OPIF logframe and provides instructions on how to construct the Agency OPIF logframe and the Consolidated OPIF logframe. It provides examples of societal goals, sector outcomes, organizational outcomes, MFOs, and PAPs. The Agency OPIF Logframe What is the Agency OPIF logframe?

The Agency OPIF logframe, or simply OPIF logframe, is a planning and budgeting tool used to establish the link between the MFOs that a department/agency produces through the implementation of PAPs, and the sector outcomes and societal goals it seeks to influence (Figure 5). As part of the results framework, it shows the focus of resource allocation, spending, monitoring, reporting, and evaluation of results based on a set performance indicators and targets. Figure 5. The Agency OPIF Logframe and DBM Focus Societal Goal Sector Outcome Sector Outcome Organizational outcome Organizational outcome Organizational outcome MFO MFO MFO MFO PAPs PAPs PAPs PAPs 26 OPIF Reference Guide

The brackets show that the department/agency has control over, and is thus accountable for the PAPs and MFOs it delivers to its external clients. They also show the focus of DBM’s monitoring and evaluation with respect to the budget. What is the purpose of the OPIF logframe? The OPIF logframe describes what a department/agency does and how the goods and services it delivers to its external clients are likely to produce the results the government desires. The logframe should express the following: • What services does the department/agency provide? (MFOs and PAPs) • What results or impacts on the community should the department/agency try to achieve? societal goals) • How are the results linked to the government’s priorities for the department/agency and the sector? (organizational outcomes and sector outcomes) Each department/agency is required to formulate an OPIF logframe. Although attached agencies have their own logframe, they must subscribe to the same organizational, sector, and societal outcomes as those of their department’s Office of the Secretary (OSEC). In cases where this does not happen and for department-wide reporting purposes, a consolidation of outcomes and MFOs of the department and all its attached agencies needs to be done to drive the attainment of results. (See discussion on consolidated logframe at the end of this Chapter) Why formulate the OPIF logframe?

As a planning tool, the OPIF logframe describes the causal links between what the department/agency does (MFOs) and the desirable short-term impacts that it will achieve. It also shows how these impacts will benefit the sector it serves and the society in general—in the medium- to longer- term (societal goals and sector outcomes)—through a series of logical steps. The logic explains assumptions made about the impact of the department’s/agency’s goods and services. A clear logframe is the foundation of a high-quality OPIF. Once the logic is properly developed, it provides a high-level context for understanding, measuring, and managing the delivery of MFOs. The logframe can be used to: • link societal and sector outcomes and organizational outcomes to MFOs, 27 OPIF Reference Guide • • • • dentify performance indicators for MFOs, identify the key risks to achieving organizational outcomes, identify areas for intra-agency and inter-agency collaboration, and communicate performance and performance expectations to stakeholders. What references can be used in formulating the logframe? The following source documents can help the department/agency formulate its OPIF logframe: • • • • • Mandates and legislation, including the Constitution National plans and sector priorities (e. g. , the PDP, RM) Congressional or other policies on matters relevant to the agency Performance monitoring and/or evaluation reports Agency strategic planning processes and documents Societal Goals What are Societal Goals? Societal goals are what the government wants to achieve for society—the overnment’s ultimate policy objectives. They are societal benefits from sector-based economic activity. They describe the intended desirable impacts of a departments/agency’s goods and services on the country, the environment, or the economy. Societal goals describe the As end-points to be aimed for, they represent intended desirable impacts of the high-level vision the government has for MFOs on society. the country. Societal goals are influenced by a broad range of factors; some are beyond the department’s/agency’s control. A number of organizations, both public and private, may contribute to the same societal goals. What are examples of Societal Goals?

The 2011-2016 PDP RM identifies only one societal goal—inclusive growth and poverty reduction—with good governance and anti-corruption as overarching theme. Other examples of societal goals include: • • • • 28 Sustainable development toward poverty reduction Peace and order toward poverty reduction National security toward poverty reduction Human development toward poverty reduction OPIF Reference Guide • Reduced poverty incidence and improved quality of life Sector Outcomes What are Sector Outcomes? Sector outcomes are the intermediate links between organizational outcomes and societal goals, and are usually achieved through the concerted effort of several departments/agencies. They are the longer-term benefits for the sector as a result of attaining organizational outcomes.

For clarity and focus, some sector outcomes may have sub-sector outcomes. Sector outcomes can promote sector integration. Where more than one department/agency contributes to a sector outcome, departments/agencies should be Sector outcomes are the encouraged to work together to achieve shared longer-term benefits for the outcomes and to clarify how each organizational sector from the initiatives of outcome and MFO contributes differently to the the department/agency. same sector outcome. Departments/agencies must refer to the latest PDP RM for guidance in stating sector outcomes and translating these into plans and projects. What are examples of Sector Outcomes?

Examples of sector outcomes are:12 • Enhanced knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values of Filipinos to lead productive lives (DepEd) • Sustainable management of environment and natural resources (DENR) • Fiscal strength (DOF) • Improved health status of the population (DOH) • Productive and competitive Filipino workers (DOLE) The following sector outcomes are cited in the 2011-2016 PDP RM: • Globally competitive and innovative industry and services sectors achieved • Equitable access to social goods and services (e. g. , education, health, housing, and other social infrastructure) improved 12 The examples in this chapter are derived from 2010 OPIF Book of Outputs. The OPIF logframes will need to be updated in view of the latest PDP (2011-2016) and Results Matrices. 29 OPIF Reference Guide • • • •

Resilience to climate change and natural disasters increased Financial system made resilient and inclusive Stable national security environment achieved Human development status improved Under the sector outcome “Improved human development status,” five sub-sector outcomes were identified in the PDP RM: • Access to quality health and nutrition services (Health, Nutrition, and Population) improved; • Access to quality education, training, and culture (Education, Training, and Culture) improved; • Access to shelter security (Housing and Urban Development) improved; • Access to quality social protection services (Social Protection) improved; and • Access to asset reform improved. Organizational Outcomes

What are Organizational Outcomes? Organizational Outcomes are intended to contribute to the achievement of sector outcomes and societal goals. They are the immediate outcomes for delivering MFOs. A department/agency has more direct influence over their organizational outcomes than sector outcomes or societal goals, but other agencies and the private sector may also affect these outcomes, organizational outcomes should reflect the impacts on the community that result from the department’s/agency’s provision of MFOs. Organizational outcomes are the short to medium term benefits to clients and community as a result of delivering MFOs. How to derive Organizational Outcomes?

The short- to medium-term impacts should be directly derivable from the current/updated mandate of the department/agency. They can also be verified by looking at the goods and services (MFOs) that a department/agency delivers. In formulating organizational outcomes, the department/agency should ask: • Why do we deliver this service? • What are we trying to achieve in the short- to medium-term? • Are they consistent with our mandate? 30 OPIF Reference Guide Alignment of sector and societal goals will help define realistic organizational outcomes and MFOs. As such, the department/agency should also ask: What do we need to do to contribute to sector outcomes and societal goals?

The same question is addressed by the department/agency in its corporate and business planning process, which is discussed in Chapter 5. Several factors need to be considered in determining organizational outcomes: • The current or updated mandate of the department/agency should be the basis of organizational outcomes. The legal basis for the creation of a department/agency is only an enabler. Each department/agency must continually review the relevance of its mandate vis-a-vis its mother department and refocus as appropriate. • The degree and nature of the national government’s policy interest in the area, particularly as expressed in the PDP, policy statements, etc.

Current major priorities of the government need to be reflected in the outcome. • The breadth of the department/agency’s mandate for different clients or community groups. (For instance, the Department of Finance is likely to have a greater number of and broader outcome statements than, say, the Palawan Council for Sustainable Development. ) • Organizational outcomes should have a short- to medium-term focus, not long -term or aspirational. • Organizational outcomes must be directly linked to the agency’s mandate, department-wide mandate, and sector and societal goals. • Organizational outcomes should also reflect the agency’s organizational capabilities. What are examples of Organizational Outcomes?

Following are examples of organizational outcomes: 1) DAR • Improved land tenure security • Empowered of agrarian reform beneficiaries 2) DOH • Access to quality and affordable health products and services assured • Access to social health insurance assured • Nutritional well-being assured • Access to quality population management information and services improved 31 OPIF Reference Guide 3) DBM • Fiscal discipline • Effective resource allocation • Efficient government operation 4) DOF • National government fiscal sustainability • Environment supportive of financial services and the capital market • Effective asset and debt management • Fiscal sustainability of LGUs Major Final Outputs What is an MFO? A major final output (MFO) is a good or service that a department/agency is mandated to deliver to external clients through the implementation of programs, activities, and projects.

MFOs can be defined relative to: An MFO is a good or service • the outcomes that they contribute to, • the client or community group that they serve, and • the business lines of the department/agency that a department/agency is mandated to deliver to external clients through the implementation of programs, activities and projects. An MFO may be a single output or a group of outputs that are similar in nature, targeted at the same organization/sector outcome and capable of being summarized by a common performance indicator (e. g. , different types of policy/advisory services are grouped into a single MFO: “Policy advisory services”). How to derive MFOs?

To derive the MFOs, the department/agency should ask: What outputs are we providing to external clients to achieve our mandate (organizational outcomes)? In view of the array of services delivered by departments/agencies, the MFO should not be narrowly defined. MFOs may reflect delivery of saleable products, provision of policy advice or other advisory services, regulatory services, case management services, and government provision of services not readily available in the marketplace. 32 OPIF Reference Guide A number of factors need to be considered in describing MFOs. In general, MFOs should: • simply describe the goods or services (avoid the use of adjectives, e. g. highquality); • help the government, the legislature, and the public understand the nature of the goods or services for which public funding is being provided; • have a clearly identifiable client (targeted external client or community group), although two or more MFOs may share the same client group; • include goods and services to be delivered through outsourced arrangements (reflected in the purchasing agency’s MFOs, not the provider’s); • be measurable, manageable, and auditable; • be within the department/agency’s control; and • be sufficient in number for balance between clarity and focus. Each MFO should reflect a core output, deliverable, or business line of the department/agency and will typically comprise a grouping of PAPs undertaken with a common outcome in mind. This grouping of PAPs should also help the department/agency assess whether it is providing the right services—or mix of services—to achieve organizational outcomes.

What are examples of MFOs? The following examples show the MFOs of key departments: 1. DAR • Land tenure improvement • Agrarian justice delivery • Support services delivery 2. DOH • Health, nutrition, and population policy and program development • Capability-building services for LGUs and other stakeholders • Leveraging services for priority health programs • Regulatory services for health products, devices, equipment, and facilities • Tertiary and other specialized health care 3. DBM • Budget and management policy services • Agency budget and management services • Budget release services • Performance monitoring and evaluation services 33 OPIF Reference Guide 4.

DOF Revenue Generation • Fiscal policies, plans, and programs • Cash and debt management services, accounting and monitoring of NG transactions and research on fiscal matters • Anti-corruption in public finance management, anti-smuggling, and tax evasion activities and exercise of regulatory power How is capital creation relevant to defining MFOs? It is important to note the difference between capital outlay, project, and MFO. In this Guide, the term project is used to refer to activities that involve the creation of capital assets, which are used to support the delivery of MFOs and are not considered to be MFOs themselves. Similarly, capital outlay or creation is treated as investments by the government in the longer-term capacity of a department/agency to deliver MFOs.

Both projects and capital outlay can be part of the cost of an MFO, but are not MFOs by themselves, if by definition an MFO is a good or service delivered to clients external to a department/agency. More discussions on how the difference between capital outlay, project, and MFO affects budget estimation can be found in Chapter 6. For example, the construction of roads by DPWH is designed to provide a transport medium for traffic. The construction of roads does not constitute the MFO; instead, the provision of the medium (roads) for the conveyance of traffic is the MFO. Road construction generates assets under DPWH’s ownership, but that asset is not an end in itself. It is an asset built to convey traffic.

Similarly, road maintenance is a process designed to maintain the transport infrastructure at a certain standard or quality. It is the traffic—or the drivers and vehicle owners—on the road that is the end-client/beneficiary, and maintenance of roads is no more an MFO than is maintenance of a building being used to educate children. In the case of the DOTC, spending on airport infrastructure is not an MFO, but an investment in the capacity of DOTC to provide a service to air transport operators. In view of these, investments in infrastructure that currently appear as an MFO in some department logframes will need to be amended to reflect these investments under the various MFOs to which they relate. 34 OPIF Reference Guide

A useful test of what an MFO is versus capital creation is to visualize the end beneficiary/client. This requires the following questions to be answered: • • • • • Who is the end owner of the output? Who is the end beneficiary/client of the output? How does the output get delivered to the end beneficiary/client? How does the good or service benefit the end beneficiary/client? What is it that the end beneficiary/client would be charged for, if the good or service were provided by a private sector entity? • What would be the basis for payment, and how would the charge for additional units of consumption be calculated? Programs, Activities, and Projects

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