Construction Equipment

Absenteeism due to sickness, quarrels, drinking are adding to less output of work and chances of accident on the site are increasing. Management has urged to do something so that time target can be achieved. Discuss how will you tackle the problem and increase the output of the work. First of all as a Project manager, find proper reasons and investigate the things according to situation at work front. After investigating following probable reasons are found due to which output of workers at site are getting down. In this situation project manager has to play a vital role of personnel management. POSSIBLE REASONS AND PREVENTIVE ACTIONS: . Consuming Alcohol: It is found that several laborers are consuming excessive low-grade quality wine, which is available nearby of labor’s colony and construction site. It is due to consumption of such cheap quality alcohol, laborer’s are loosing control on their behavior, attitude towards work, and heath. As it happens at almost all working sites, there is a big ring of wine mafias who encourage their own illegal business nearby such places. It is difficult to tackle such problem but not impossible. This also becomes a reason for frequent quarrels between consumer’s own family as well as outsiders. Actions: Convince laborers not to consume alcohol or other addictives, which drastically impact their physical as well as mental strength. • Arrange awareness programs, plays, visual shows on such themes and subjects. Such programs definitely would help people to seek a right path to do right things. • If possible ask administration dept. to talk to these wine selling personnel’s either to stop or at least limit their sale per individal. • Take assistance from local police authorities if necessary towards controlling nearby wine sellers. 2. Hygienic condition: Labor’s colonies are generally not up to the standard from hygienic point of view.

Labors living in such unhygienic environments are liable to frequent health problems. • Proper sanitary facilities are not provided in labor colony, • People do not use dustbins provided by management, and throw garbage, kitchen sludge anywhere in colony, which worsens the situation and is also a reason for frequent quarrels between labors. • Many potholes are found in labor colony, which is a breeding space for infections. • Same water is provided for drinking purpose as well as for domestic use. All this results in unhygienic living conditions and leads to outbreak of epidemic within the labor community.

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Apart from this, as the labor are relocated away from their home, can’t enjoy social life and hence feel homesick. This also has an effect on their performance. Some of these problems can be solved by taking some precursory measures, Such as : • Open an additional office as, Safety Health and Environment – SHE center at labor colony. • Appoint a doctor as health officer and introduce routine weekly / fortnight health check up for all labors at SHE center. • Introduce Compulsory vaccination to all workers foreseeing possibilities of an epidemic outbreak. Keep some emergency treatment medicines, Snake bite kits, dressing facility etc. eadily available all the camp. Free condom distribution. • Construct a separate water tank for drinking purpose and timely cleaning of water tank. • Arrange regular and periodic spreading of DDT powder all around the labor colony. Or periodic fumigation of colony area. • Daily chlorination of drinking water as per guidance given by SHE health officer / Doctor. • Arrange for filling of potholes in colony. • Arrange periodic transportation facilities to nearby village or town/ markets so as to satisfy his domestic requirements. Other alternative is by making an arrangement for a person to make avail all the necessary materials. Improve arrangement of streetlights and security services during nighttime. • Maintain health record of all workers, and periodically analyze it comparing with previous records and worker’s health status. This exercise will give guideline for further necessary actions and requirements. • Make some arrangement for weekly entertainment programs; like film shows, drama, musical shows etc. • Arrangement for a public telephone within the colony. • Hygienic condition at Work Site It is observed after some detail investigations, that at actual construction site also requires some improvement. Observations As this is a tunnel project, work method includes blasting inside the tunnel space, smoke and dust that comes out of this blasting process is not properly exhausted. • Air ventilation inside the tunnel space is not enough. • During work, Noise level of machines inside the tunnel area is beyond permissible limits. As per IS code after certain (90db) unit of any sound or noise will create irritation in human psychology because of which there might be a change in behavior of human. It might make them short tempered; they are irritated by small issues and react in an abnormal way. • Light inside the work area is not sufficient. Proper air circulation inside the tunnel. • Water Pipe lines used inside the work area has leakages at several points, due to which water gets accumulated inside as well as outside the work area. Especially making it difficult and irritating to work under these water logged conditions. • Approach way from labor colony to site is often rocky and slippery. Best solution to this is be providing a road from site to labor coliny with proper street light facilities. Actions: Few changes in work methodology can be adopted in order Improve atmosphere at work site. Certain rules and policies implemented would be very effective in this direction.

Following changes require implementation for better improvement. • Health officer may check each worker for physical fitness before allowing him to work inside tunnel. Only those workers, who are found physically fit, should be allowed to work inside tunnel. • Calculate the required capacity of exhaust and blower as per the size of tunnel, Number of labors working inside the tunnel, number of machines working and its heat transmission to atmosphere during peak working hours inside the tunnel, Number of halogen lights to be provided for better illumination, requirement of fresh air inside the tunnel.

Higher capacity exhaust fans with suitable wind direction should be used. Also provide blowers to circulate and intake of fresh air with suitable wind direction from higher level. This will allow clean and fresh air to circulate inside the tunnel that improves working conditions, which in turn improves the output of workers. • One standby unit, of exhaust and blower, will give support to existing working machinery for sufficient service outcome or repairing time during break down of unit. Inside the tunnel, exhaust pipes and blower pipes should be provided thro out the length of tunnel with openings of required size and some interval opposite to each other and staggered in plan as Well as section. Supply blower of fresh air should be kept at normal human height and exhaust blower should be provided slightly above the level of supply pipe. This will keep fresh air circulation in and around the work area. Fresh air • With proper safety guidelines the blasting process should be permitted and no person should be allowed inside the tunnel at the time of blasting.

Also precautions should be taken as to prevent any damage to exhaust / ventilation systems. After blasting, exhaust and blowers should run for some time before labors enter inside the tunnel for working. • Immediately replace or repair the fixtures of water pipeline wherever leakages are found. • As this is a tunnel project, at the time of working, floor of tunnel itself will be rocky with undulations. As there is a criterion of leveled surface; blasting, drilling and cheeping works are involved, due to this potholes are always found in floor, and its formation can not be avoided.

Filling the potholes by using lean concrete or other Alternative fillers in the floor of tunnel is necessary to avoid accumulation of water. Also provide a drain and divert the water from inside to outside of the tunnel. As preparation of drain might not feasible in some areas, provide a small sump at such location and water can be pumped out. • By using of illumination meter we can derive the exact requirement of lighting arrangements inside the tunnel at different locations. Lights / halogens should be provided accordingly.

Also safety helmet with chargeable torch should be given to workers doing special work; such as drillers, blaster and supervisors. • It is very necessary to control the sound level inside the tunnel. As this is a closed area there is a high possibility of sound echo. In each working area supervisors should have sound measurement equipment, with inbuilt control siren facility, which will indicate supervisor to stop some of machinery and bring down sound level to a permissible level. Generally this is not possible for timely completion of work.

So, earmuff should be provided to all workers who are working in high noise level work areas inside the tunnel. These facilities will increase work efficiency of workers who are very sensitive with noise. Mainly compressor, Drilling drifters, chipping instruments, generators, and diesel pumps are sources of noise. • Access road to site from labor colony should be leveled and well maintained. • At site, SHE center is there to tackle any accidental emergency. it is very necessary to provide readily available 24 hrs ambulance facility with necessary primary equipments such as oxygen, dressing accessories etc.

Bonus and appreciations: Money is a big motivation for the any person. It encourages a human being to do better to gain something more. So, over all above-mentioned things to encourage sub-contractors and their worker, give some bonus and appreciation linked with activities and milestones. For example following conditions can be introduced. 1. If contractor completes drilling of 500 nos of holes, for 1. 50 m depth per shift, he will be entitled for additional bonus of Rs. 10 per hole. And if contractor finishes more than 70000 holes per week he will be entitled for appreciation of Rs. 5000. 0 additional to his routine bonus. 2. Arrangement for snacks / food should be done by company at company’s expenses, if workers of some contractor are working for more than 12 hrs. But output of the contractors or workers should be considered and it should be authorized by engineer in-charge. Financial Impact All above changes in project activities definitely adds to more cost, but as per the present scenario of worker’s efficiency, it is desirable to improve their efficiency by other alternative improvement. In original estimate of project this is not considered as an important issue.

But comparatively monthly cost incurred for these improvements are much lesser than the quantum of work increased due to this. Actions because of which additional cost is incurred are enlisted below. 1. Additional stewards in labor colony. Rs. 6000/- per month approx. 2. Doctor chargesRs. 15000/- per month approx 3FumigationRs. 10000/- per month approx 4. Additional higher capacity blowerRs. 18750/- per month approx Considering project duration 24-months, additional cost is Rs. 45000. 00/ 5Illumination meter, sound measuring deviceRs 10000/- per month 6Worker conveyances facility to nearby townRs. 5000/- per month 7. Ambulances costRs. 25000/- per month 8. Bonus clauseRs. 200000/- per month These are some of the major cost varying actions. We can see that there is a total difference of @ Rs. 3. 25 lacks per month say Rs. 30-40 lacks for over all project. The above expenses might not significant for such big project as a contribution for improving the worker’s efficiency. Knowledge of Modern tunneling techniques: Tunneling machines, sometimes called moles, make an initial cut into rock with a cutterhead.

Individual disk-shaped cutters are set into the face of a powerful, rotating head, which may be more than 5. 5 m (18 feet) in diameter. As the machine bores through rock, conveyor belts transport rock particles, muck, and any other refuse away from the head. Concrete segments are erected to line and protect the tunnel as each area is hollowed out. The building of a tunnel is known as driving a tunnel and involves advancing the passageway by blasting or boring and excavating.

Tunnels through mountains or underwater are usually worked from the two opposite ends, or faces, of the passage. In the construction of a very long tunnel, vertical shafts may be dug at convenient intervals to excavate from more than two points. Improved boring and drilling machinery now allow a tunnel to be driven four or five times faster than was possible with older techniques. A project manager performs different roles. 1) the interpersonal roles arise directly from authority & refer to the relationship between the manager & others, 2) Second type of managers influences to motivate the subordinates.

As a result of this we get more output which leads to timely / early completion of Project. These leads to increase in monthly invoice, increase the repayment of mobilization for which client is charging interest as per contract clause, reduce the additional cost of over heads if early completion of project, nominate / entitle our company for bonus or appreciation from client if we complete the project before contractual schedule as per contract clause.

It is necessary to take initiative at early stage of project itself for improvement; also it is desirable to consider this cost in tender stage itself. Generally in any project some provisional amounts are kept reserved for such type of incidental things and for survival of project. Definitely we can improve the situation by such type of developments in the project. ———————– Exhaust pipe Fresh air blower pipe