Oton, Iloilo “Comparative study of the acidity of carbonated drinks” Research Paper Presented to Ms. Rhoda Erdao Presented by Neo Johnbern Salcedo Eunice Judewel Milanes Kricia May Simba Paula Grace Cadic SPECIAL PROGRAM IN SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY AND ENGINEERING J. P. Laurel Street, Oton, Iloilo, Philippines Acknowledgement First of all the researchers would like to thank God for giving us the strength and the opportunity to finish this study in the given time and the guidance in all times.
To our Parents, we would like thank for giving us the support as well as our financial needs. To Mrs. Judith Milanes, we would like to thank for the venue where the researchers conducted their study. To Ms. Rhoda Erdao, the researchers would like to thank her, for assisting the researchers study and for correcting our errors. To Ms. Cairene Jean Monsale, we would like to thank for giving the researchers an idea for this study. Lastly, to the friends of the researchers who are Steve Turita, Nelva Joy Calanza, Kriza Nino whom gave moral support. Researchers ABSTRACT Carbonated drinks are very common to us.
Now a day’s lots of people are fond of drinking of soft drink even in our daily work like in schools or even inside of our homes we admit that we are drinking soft drinks. This study wants to know the acidity of carbonated drinks and also to know the acidity of the different kinds of carbonated drinks and also to the benefit of community that will help mostly the parents to know of what are the less acidic carbonated drinks. To determine the acidity of the different carbonated drinks, the researchers used Yellow bell extract as the (indicator) to test the acidity of the different carbonated drinks and a litmus paper.
The results prove that the set up A has the highest acidity level than the set up B and C carbonated drinks. When the yellow bell indicator was applied to each transparent plastic cups, containing different carbonated drinks. The results are set up A has dark red color. Set up B has pale red and Set up C has red orange. Therefore the researcher concludes the advantage of consuming less acidic carbonated products will lessen the acid on human body. Table of Contents Chapter 1- Introduction Of the Study Background of the Study Statement of the Problem
Hypothesis Significance of the Study Scopes and Limitation 2- Review of Related Literature Coke Sprite Mirinda 3- Methodology Materials Procedures Schematic Diagram 4- Results and Discussion Results Analysis 5- Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation Bibliography Part I Introduction to the study Background of the Study Carbonated drinks are very common to us. Now a day lots of people are fond of drinking soft drinks. Every day of our lives or even in our daily work, like in schools, or even inside of our own houses we admit that we are drinking soft drinks.
Others think that soft drinks are good to our body, but on the other hand we didn’t know that it has a bad effect’s to our body. The most common soft drink that people are drinking is coke. In this study the researchers will use a coke as a sample of carbonated drink. Coke is a fuel with few impurities and high carbon content, usually made from coal. Cokes made from coal are grey, hard and porous. The form of coke is known as petroleum coke, or pet coke, is derived from oil refinery coke units or other cracking processes.
The yellow bell extract or the Allamanda Cathartica also known as yellow bell, golden trumpet or buttercup flower, is a genus of tropical shrubs or vines belonging to the dogbane family (aponacynaceae), this will be the extract (indicator) that the researchers will going to use. To determine the acidity of the different carbonated drinks, the researchers will going to use a Yellow bell extract as the (indicator) to test the acidity of the different carbonated drinks and a litmus paper.
The researchers conducted this study to determine the effect of the extract to the different kinds carbonated drinks and to compare the acidity of each carbonated drinks. Statement of the Problem 1. What is the effect of the yellow bell extract (indicator) on the different carbonated drinks? 2. Which Carbonated drinks, will get the highest amount of acid? Hypothesis 1. The set up A has the highest acidity level than the set up B and C carbonated drinks. 2. When the yellow bell indicator was applied to each transparent plastic cups, containing different carbonated drinks. The results are set up A has dark red color.
Set up B has pale red and Set up C has red orange. Significance of the study To the community: It will help the people, mostly the parents. To know what are the less acidic carbonated drinks to give to their family. To the researcher: This will give knowledge to the researcher, the advantage of consuming less acidic carbonated products to prevent acidity. Scope and Limitations This study is limited to determine the acidity of the carbonated drinks. The instruments to be use in conducting, this experiment are: 3 kinds of carbonated drinks, yellow bell extract (indicator), litmus paper and 3 transparent plastic cups.
This study was conducted at Sta. Felomena Subdivision, at Milane’s residence. On July 20, 2013. Part 2 Review of the Related Literature Carbonated drinks A carbonated drink (also called soda, pop, coke, soda pop, fizzy drink, tonic, seltzer, mineral, sparkling water, lowly water, or carbonated beverage) is a beverage that typically contains water (often, but not always, carbonated water), usually a sweetener, and usually a flavoring agent. The sweetener may be sugar, high-fructose corn syrup, fruit juice, sugar substitutes (in the case of diet drinks) or some combination of these.
Soft drinks may also contain caffeine, colorings, preservatives and other ingredients. Soft drinks are called “soft” in contrast to “hard drinks” (alcoholic beverages). Small amounts of alcohol may be present in a soft drink, but the alcohol content must be less than 0. 5% of the total volume if the drink is to be considered non-alcoholic.  Fruit juice, tea, and other such non-alcoholic beverages are technically soft drinks by this definition but are not generally referred to as such. Soft drinks may be served chilled or at room temperature, and some, such as Dr Pepper, can be served warm.  COKE
In 1886, Coca-Cola was invented by a pharmacist named John Pemberton, otherwise known as “Doc. ” He fought in the Civil War, and at the end of the war he decided he wanted to invent something that would bring him commercial success. Usually, everything he made failed in pharmacies. He invented many drugs, but none of them ever made any money. So, after a move to Atlanta, Pemberton decided to try his hand in the beverage market. In his time, the soda fountain was rising in popularity as a social gathering spot. Temperance was keeping patrons out of bars, so making a soda-fountain drink just made sense. And this was when Coca-Cola was born.
However, Pemberton had no idea how to advertise. This is where Frank Robinson came in. He registered Coca-Cola’s formula with the patent office, and he designed the logo. He also wrote the slogan, “The Pause That Refreshes. ” Coke did not do so well in its first year. And to make matters worse, Doc Pemberton died in August 1888, meaning he would never see the commercial success he had been seeking. After Pemberton’s death, a man named Asa Griggs Candler rescued the business. In 1891, he became the sole owner of Coca-Cola. It was when Candler took over that one of the most innovative marketing techniques was invented.
He hired traveling salesmen to pass out coupons for a free Coke. His goal was for people to try the drink, like it, and buy it later on, In addition to the coupons, Candler also decided to spread the word of Coca-Cola by plastering logos on calendars, posters, notebooks and bookmarks to reach customers on a large stage. It was one step in making Coca-Cola a national brand, rather than just a regional brand. A controversial move on the part of Candler was to sell Coca-Cola syrup as a patent medicine, claiming it would get rid of fatigue and headaches.
In 1898, however, Congress passed a tax in the wake of the Spanish-American war. The tax was on all medicines, so Coca-Cola wanted to be sold only as a beverage. After a court battle, Coca-Cola was no longer sold as a drug. The company produces concentrate, which is then sold to licensed Coca-Cola bottlers throughout the world. The bottlers, who hold territorially exclusive contracts with the company, produce finished product in cans and bottles from the concentrate in combination with filtered water and sweeteners. The bottlers then sell, distribute and merchandise Coca-Cola to retail stores and vending machines.
The Coca-Cola Company also sells concentrate for soda fountains to major restaurants and food service distributors. The Coca-Cola Company has, on occasion, introduced other cola drinks under the Coke brand name. The most common of these is Diet Coke, with others including Caffeine-Free Coca-Cola, Diet Coke Caffeine-Free, Coca-Cola Cherry, Coca-Cola Zero, Coca-Cola Vanilla, and special versions with lemon, lime or coffee. Based on Interbrand’s best global brand 2011, Coca-Cola was the world’s most valuable brand.  SPRITE Sprite was introduced in the United States in 1961 to compete against 7-Up.
It is a common misconception that the name was inspired by illustrator Haddon Sundblom’s “Sprite Boy” character, which had been the Coca-Cola mascot in ad campaigns of the 1940s and 1950s. In the 1980s, many years after Sprite’s introduction, Coke pressured its large bottlers which distributed 7-Up to replace the competitor with the Coca-Cola product. In large part due to the greater strength of the Coca-Cola network of bottlers, Sprite finally became the market leader position in the lemon-lime soda category in 1978 Sprite is a soda produced by the Coca-Cola Company in 1961.
It is a clear lemon-lime flavored caffeine-free soft drink. This drink was originally invented in Germany as “Fanta Klare Zitrone”, which means “Clear Lemon Fanta”. Coca-Cola invented Sprite to compete with 7-Up. In 1989, Sprite became the most popular drink in the lemon-lime soda category. Sprite comes in a green and blue can or a green transparent bottle. It also comes in clear 8 oz. glass bottles. This soda is sold in over 190 countries. Sprite is ranked the number 4 soft drink worldwide. Mirinda Mirinda was originally produced in Spain.
It became available in the United States in late 2003 in bilingual packaging, and initially sold at a reduced price, presumably to become a competitor against Coke’s Fanta brand. Since 2005, Mirinda flavors have largely been sold under the Tropicana brand in the United States except in Guam, where Pepsi began selling it under the Mirinda brand in 2007 (replacing Chamorro Punch Orange). PepsiCo also tried to sell Mirinda in Brazil in late 1996, but the brand was discontinued in 1997 after weak sales, keeping the local brand Sukita under production. In Italy, it is sold under the brand Slam.
Mirinda is a brand of soft drink originally created in Spain, with global distribution. The word Mirinda means “admirable” or “wonderful” in Esperanto. It is available in fruit varieties including orange, grapefruit, apple, strawberry, raspberry, pineapple, pomegranate, banana, passionfruit,lemon, hibiscus, Guarana, tangerine, and grape flavors as well as Tamarind. A “citrus” flavor is also available in certain areas of the Middle East. It is part of a beverage area often referred to as the flavor segment, comprising carbonated and non-carbonated fruit-flavored beverages.
The orange flavor of Mirinda now represents the majority of Mirinda sales worldwide following a major repositioning of the brand towards that flavor in the early 1990s. Mirinda is owned by PepsiCo since 1970  and is primarily commercialized outside North America. It competes with Coca-Cola’sFanta and Dr Pepper’s Orange Crush or Sunkist (soft drink) brand, with flavor brands local to individual countries. As with most soft drinks, Mirinda is available in multiple formulations of flavor, carbonation and sweetener depending on the taste of individual markets. Part 3 Methodology
I. Materials 1. 3 kinds of carbonated drinks 2. 3 plastic cups 3. Yellow bell extract (indicator) 4. Litmus paper II. Procedures 1. The researchers prepare the materials to be used. ( 3 kinds of carbonated drinks, 3 plastic cups, yellow bell extract and litmus paper) 2. The researchers Label the 3 plastic cups as Set up A, Set up B and Set up C. 3. They put the 3 kinds of carbonated drinks in each Set ups. 4. In set up A, set up B and set up C, the researchers put a drop of yellow bell extract in each set up. 5. Lastly the researchers put a litmus paper in each set up.
Schematic Diagram Gathering of materials Prepare the 3 set ups Put the 3 kinds of carbonated drinks Drop of Yellowbell extract Put the litmus paper Observe Dispose Part 4 Results and Discussion Carbonated Drinks| pH Level(Yellowbell extract)| Result of Blue litmus paper| Set up A| 2| Pale dark red| Set up B| 3| Pale red-orange| Set up C| 3| Pale red| The experiment reveals that in each set ups, when yellowbell extract was put in each set ups the color of the carbonated drinks has change and also when the litmus paper was put the color of the litmus paper has change.
In set up A, when yellowbell extract was put the pH level of the carbonated drink is 2. In set up B, when the yellowbell extract was put the ph level is 3 same as the set up C when yellowbell extract the result is also 3. Part 5 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation Summary The researchers conducted this study to determine the effect of the extract to the different kinds of carbonated drinks and to compare the acidity of each carbonated drinks. Conclusion
Based from the results, the researchers concluded that the set up A has the higher pH level according to the results of litmus paper. In the other hand, if we will base from the results of the yellowbell indicator, set up B and C has the lowest pH level and still set up A has the highest pH level. Thus, the results of the two data gathering instruments are not the same. Recommendation The researchers recommended all the readers to choose a low ph level carbonated drinks to avoid diseases like diabetes, UTI, hyperacidity etc. Bibliography