City | 108. 65 km2 ( sq mi)| Elevation| 47 m ( ft)| Population (2011)| | City| 4,78,838| Density| 4370km/2(/sq mi)| Metro| 4,98,984| Language| | Offical| Tamil| Time Zone| IST (UTC+5:30)| PIN| 627xxx| Telephone Code| 91 (0)462| Vehicle Registration| TN-72| Website| [tirunelvelicorp. tn. gov. in]| Origin of the District: On acquisition from the Nawab of Arcot in 1801, the Britishnamed it as Tinnevelly district though their headquarters was first located in Palayamkottai the adjacent town, where they had their military headquarters during their operations against the Palayakars.

Two reasons may be attributed for naming it after Tirunelveli. One is because, it was and is the chief town of the district and the other is that it was already called Tirunelveli Seemai under the Nayaks and Nawabs. Both Tirunelveli and Palayamkottai grew as the twin towns of the district. Geographical Location: The Tirunelveli District is located in the world map, between 8o8? and 9o23? latitude and 77o09? and 77o54? longitude. The total geographical area of the district is 6,823 sq. km. The district is surrounded by the State of Kerala, Gulf of Mannar and the districts of Virudhunagar, Thoothukudi and Kanyakumari.

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Administrative Setup of Tirunelveli District: The district administration is headed by the District Collector with his office at the district collectorate. The responsibilities of the District Collector include maintenance of law & order, coordinating various development and welfare activities in the district, etc. The Collector is assisted by the District Revenue Officer in matters of land revenue, land matters, public distribution system, etc. and by the Project Officer, District Rural Development Agency for various development schemes.

Other officers who assist the Collector in his work are Personal Assistant (General), Personal Assistant (Development), Additional Personal Assistant (Land), Personal Assistant (Agriculture), Personal Assistant (Survey and Land Records), Personal Assistant (Noon Meal Programme), Personal Assistant (Small Savings), Special Deputy Collector (PGRC), Personal Assistant (Accounts), Assistant Director (Panchayats), Assistant Director (Audit), Assistant Director (Mines), Special Deputy Collector (Stamps), Assistant Director (Town Panchayats), District Adi-Dravidar and Tribal Welfare Officer, District Backward class welfare Officer, Public Relations Officer, District Supply Officer, Assistant Commissioner (Excise) and Inspection Cell Officer.. Details of other administrative setup in Tirunelveli District are as follows: No. of Firkas| 60| No. of Villages| 559| No. of Village Panchayats| 425| No. of Town Panchayats| 38| No. of Municipalities| 7| No. of Municipal corporation| 1| Revenue Divisions At the divisional level, the Sub Collectors / Revenue Divisional Officers assist the Collector in running the administration. In Tirunelveli District, 3 Revenue Divisions are there. 1. Tirunelveli 2. Cheranmahadevi 3. Tenkasi Taluks:

Tahsildars are the officer’s in-chargeat taluk level. In Tirunelveli, there are 11 taluks, which are as follows: 1. Tirunelveli 2. Palayamkottai 3. Sankarankovil 4. Ambasamudram 5. Nanguneri 6. Radhapuram 7. Tenkasi 8. Shenkottai 9. Alangulam 10. Veerakeralampudur 11. Sivagiri. Panchayat Unions (Blocks): Panchayat Union Commissioners at block level are the Officers in-charge for implementing all the developmental activities recommended by the Government at the Block level. There are 19 Panchayat Unions (Blocks) in this district. 1. Palayamkottai 2. Manur 3. Melaneelithanallur 4. Sankarankovil 5. Kuruvikulam 6. Cheranmahadevi 7. Ambasamudram 8.

Pappakudi 9. Kadayam 10. Kalakadu 11. Nanguneri 12. Vallioor 13. Radhapuram 14. Alangulam 15. Keelapavoor 16. Tenkasi 17. Shencottai 18. Kadayanallur 19. Vasudevanallur Taluk Administration: Tahsildars are in charge of Revenue administration at taluk level. He is assisted by Head Quarters Deputy Tahsildar, Taluk Supply Officer and Zonal Deputy Tahsildars. Each taluk is divided into a number of firkas which comprises a number of Revenue villages. Revenue Inspector at firka level and Village Administrative Officer at Village level assist the Tahsildar. List of Firkas / Villages in each Taluk is as follows S. No. | Name of Taluk| No. of Firkas| No. f Revenue Villages| 1| Tirunelveli| 6| 81| 2| Palayamcottai| 4| 58| 3| Sankarankoil| 9| 87| 4| Ambasamudram| 8| 90| 5| Nanguneri| 6| 70| 6| Radhapuram| 7| 41| 7| Tenkasi| 4| 36| 8| Shencottai| 3| 18| 9| Sivagiri| 4| 25| 10| Alangulam| 5| 30| 11| Veerakeralampudur| 4| 23| | Total| 60| 559| Tirunelveli District Population 2011: In 2011, Tirunelveli had population of 3,072,880 of which male and female were 1,518,595 and 1,554,285 respectively. In 2001 census, Tirunelveli had a population of 2,723,988 of which males were 1,333,939 and remaining 1,390,049 were females. Tirunelveli Literacy Rate 2011: Average literacy rate of Tirunelveli in 2011 were 82. 92 compared to 76. 09 of 2001.

If things are looked out at gender wise, male and female literacy were 89. 66 and 76. 38 respectively. Economic profile: Tirunelveli has been an agricultural area throughout its history. The district is a major producer of rice, coconuts, bananas, spices and forest-based products. Since it is a coastal district, Tirunelveli is also involved in fishery development and production. For the period2005–2006 the total inland fish catch was 1,874 tonnes, and the total marine fish catch was 7,014 tonnes. Thedistrict is also rich in minerals, with a total of 407 mines and quarries. Limestone, granite and garnet sand are some of the minerals mined or produced in the district.

Major industries include textile, food and forestry products. A Special Economic Zone (SEZ) was introduced at Nanguneri in 2001. A pharma park and windmill spare-parts and television-manufacturing factories have been planned in this SEZ. The Tamil Nadu Industrial Development Corporation (TIDCO) has planned a Rs 700-crore high-tech industrial park in Nanguneri in association with INFAC Group and Axes Technologies Inc of the US. The state government is planning light manufacturing, design and assembly facilities, moderninfrastructure facilities and amenities in this SEZ to attract a workforce from around the world. HISTORY OF AAVIN 3. 1 Introduction

The dairy development was established in 1958 in Tamilnadu. The administrative and statuary controls over all the milk cooperatives in the state were transferred to the dairy development department on 1. 8. 1965. The commissioner for milk production and dairy development was made as the functional register under the tamilnadu cooperative societies act. With the adoption of “anand pattern” in the state of tamilnadu. Tamilnadu Co-operative Milk Producers’ Federation limited was registered in the state of 1st February 1981. The commercial activities of the department such as milk procurement, chilling, processing, packing and sale of milk to the consumer etc. hitherto dealt with by the tamilnadu dairy development cooperation limited, were transferred to the newly registered Tamilnadu Co-operative Milk Producers’ Federation Limited, popularly known as “Aavin”. Tamilnadu Co-operative Milk Producers’ Federation Limited was constituted on 1st February 1981. Federation is procuring, processing and marketing of milk and milk products federation has implemented the dairy development activities under operation flood programmed with a financial and technical assistance of national dairy development board. Chennai metro is having four dairies. Milk procurement, processing and distribution are being attended by the district unions in the respective areas.

In the wake of liberalization policy, private dairies have also entered into the field of the honorable Chief Minister of tamilnadu high priority has been given for improving the performance of milk co-operatives by adoptinvg a symmetric approachin and proper sytratergy in milk co-operatives. Significant achievement has been made by milk producers’ cooperative societies, unions and federation in the state of tamilnadu. The cattle population in India is approximately 15% of total cattle population in the world. India stood no. 1 position in milk production. tamilnadu is one of the leading state in milk production. The milk production in tamilnadu per day is 145. 88 lakh liters. 3. Objectives of the Dairy Development Department 1. Assure a remunerative price for the milk produced by the member of the milk producers’ co-operative societies through a stable, steady and well organized market support. 2. Distribution of quality milk products to the consumers at reasonable price. Keeping these objectives in mind, a number of activities are undertaken by the dairy development department. Provision of free veterinary health cover to all animals owned by the members of milk cooperatives, implementation of artificial insemination program, supply of balanced cattle feed and inculcation of farmers with modern animal husbandry methods and practices.

All activities, which are essential for the up gradation of the mitch animals and improving their productivity in the long run, have been undertaken. Provision of necessary infrastructure facilities for marketing milk products and supply of quality milk to the consumer has been made by way of establishing new chilling centers, pasteurization plants and adoption of modern of modern processing system. 3. 3 Center of aavin in Tamilnadu Tirunelveli is the main branch of milk production and preparing dairy products. 3. 4 Four small branches: Under tirunelveli, there are four small branches located as follows 1. Sankarankoil 2. Vallioor 3. Shathankulam 4. Kovilpatti. These are also called as “Chilling center” 3. 5 Collection of milk: Raw milk:

The milk is collected from many villages. The milkers give their milk through dairy form situated on their village. Therefore both societies and milk givers can earn money with some profits. The collection of milk which is directly gets from the milk giver is known as the “Raw Milk”. The milk can be collected at morning and evening. 3. 6 Dairy: Processing facility: the milk received at the chilling centers are brought to the dairy and along with the milk received at the dairy, milk is processed for keeping the quality. Types of milk such as standardized milk, high fat, high protein milk, are being prepared to the requirements of the consumers; the surplus fat is converted into ghee.

The whole milk surplus is dispatched to metro dairies and feeder balancing dairies viz Madurai, erode, and Trivandrum. The high fat and high protein milk are packed in 250ml and 500ml sachets. In the dairy milk ghee, ice-cream flavoured milk, rose milk, butter milk etc are being manufacturing and marketed. The processing capacity of main dairy, kovilpatti CC, valliyure CC, sakarankoil CC,and sathankulam CC are 1,00,000; 10,000; 20,000; 50,000; 10,000 LPD respectively 3. 7 Transporting: The collected raw milk from the above branch dairy forms is chilled of about 40 C and then, the chilled milk is transported to tirunelveli main depot with securely.

Transporting vehicle may have the double layered freezer attach with them. Therefore the milk can be securely comes to the depot without any air pollution. 3. 8 Process of milk: 3. 1 Processing Hall In tirunelveli depot, processing the milk is two types as described follows. The process of pasteurization is carried out. Then, transported milk is streamed at about 71OC and then chilling at 4OC to kill harmful bacteria. Then the bacteria free milk is stored in silo (Large Milk Storage Tank) at 6OC. These milk is then packed in ? , ? , 1 liter pockets and then stored of about 7OC to 8OC. Finally these pocket milk are distributed to various market places for sale. 3. 9 Homogenization

In first the homogenization is a process that reduces the size of fat globules by forcing pressurized hot milk through small whole causing turbulence, the break up the larger fact globules so that they remain suspended rather than separating in a cream layer at the top. Homogenization effects the development of atherosclerosis, coronary, heart disease milk allergy, diabetes. 3. 12 Pasteurization It is a process by which the disease causing bacteria in the milk are destroyed without losing its nutritive values. The milk is boiled at 600c for thirty minutes and cooled quickly. Whatever the method is used for preservations of food, cleanliness and general sanitary conditions are imported. 3. 13 To Access the Quality of Milk 1. Reduction Test It access whether the bacteria are present or not in the milk. It bacteria are present it will the bacteria in that milk. . MBR Test (methylene blue dye) Lactase test It is used to determine the lactic acid concentration in milk and milk product since its value has to be kept under fixed law limits. Chloride testIt is used to measure the quality of salt in different dairy products. Ammonia Text It is used to measures the ammonia concentration and it determine the good quality milk. Ammo acid degradation of sort cheese. 3. 14 Percentage of fat in milk The fat content in the milk is shown in the following table Milk| Fat percentage| SNF percentage| Toned milk| 3. 0| 8. 5| Standardized milk| 4. 5| 8. 5| Double toned milk| 2. 0| 9. 0| 3. 1 Percentage of fat in milk

According to the fat and FAT content the type of milk explained in the above table are packed in the blue, green and red color pocket respectively. High protein milkfat 3. 0%; SNF 9. 0%. High fat milkfat 5. 0; SNF 8. 5%. 3. 15 Different product: The different produce by aavin is listed in the following list. Product name 1. Butter 2. Milk – khoa 3. Ghee 4. Ice cream 5. Milk cake 6. Milk powder 7. Curd and butter milk Aavin products 3. 16 MARKETING: At present this union is marketing 60,000 LPG approximately in the tirunelveli and thoothukudi district through its agents, booths and parlours, No of agents86 Association17 Private institutions15 Govt. institutions8 Societies8

Milk booths12 Milk parlours14 No of milk distribution routes 14 3. 17 Milk production: Due to the technology development for veterinary department in India leads to receive more liters of milk to main depot. The milk production depends on the collection of milk and the quality. The following table shows the rapid growth in milk production for three years. Year| Production (LPD)| Increase/decrease| 2007-2008| 733812| -| 2008-2009| 771620| +37808| 2009-2010| 760210| -11410| 3. 2 Milk production The above table shows of the aavin milk production for the three years 2007 – 2010. During the year 2007 – 2010, the company earned 733812 liters per day.

In the next year the company has met to production 771620. On comparing the previous years, the production of milk increased up to 37808. In the next year 2009 – 2010, the milk production reduces to 11410 on comparing the above. 3. 18 Milk sales Statement The milk sales mainly depend on the milk production. The following are the sales of report for the milk sales for three years. Year| Sales (LPD)| Increase/decrease| 2007-2008| 585567| -| 2008-2009| 660034| +74467| 2009-2010| 688063| +28029| 3. 3 Milk sales statement Source: Primary data The above table shows that milk sales increases rapidly between the different years. This leads to get more profit for the sales department of aavin.