Chemistry research

There are several chemical reactions taking place in the general baking of cakes. Every ingredient has its own function and causes a different reaction Synthesis: * Egg yolks (modify molecule’s structure) helps the oil-based and water-based components of the cake mix together. When eggs are cooked, the protein molecules become uncurled when exposed to heat and create new molecular bonds with other nearby protein molecules. When the egg is completely cooked, it helps form a protein network that gives the cake structure.

Denaturing of egg white when it cooks is also a chemical reaction (if this does not happen the bread will have not have shape) Baking powder: Baking powder has two chemical reactions which are the following: 1. When it is mixed with wet ingredients it reacts to add co2 2. But that is not all when it hits the oven it reacts to the heat as well. Double Replacement: Baking soda (NaHCO3) reacts with acidic substances (HA) in cake batter in a double replacement reaction:    ReactantProduct NaHCO3      +   HA     –>    Na A       +   H (HCO3) H(HCO3) is more commonly known as H2CO3.

Decompose: * Gas is Produced * Yeast breaks down glucose to release CO2 gas, decomposition * Baking soda Releases CO2 according to the equation 2NaHCO3 > Na2CO3 + CO2 + H2O However, as this also produces a strong base, Na2CO3, which has to be neutralized, baking powder is usually used instead. Baking powder is baking soda with acid added. This neutralizes the base and produces more CO2 according to the following equation: ReactantProduct NaHCO3 + H+ > Na+ + H2O + CO2

In baking powder, the citric acid is the dry ingredient that reacts with the baking soda, the CO2 gas is used in making baked products raise. Citric acid+ NaHCO3—> CO2 gas + water + sodium citrate (if this does not happen the bread will have not raise) Flour: absorbs the liquid ingredients and keeps the structure helping to set the dough and keep its shape. The proteins when cooked change the structure of the gluten. Hence, the bread is light and fluffy because the gluten, a protein found in flour. When flour is added to water and kneaded, these proteins swell up and form an elastic substance called gluten.

Gluten can stretch and trap the bubbles of gas that make dough rise. (If this does not happen the bread will be flat) Single replacement: Sugar: When the sugar melts and then crystallizes it gives the dough its snap and hard texture (cookie). The browning reaction that causes the tops of a cake or bread to brown is a composition reaction between proteins and sugars. Mailard reaction (If this does not happen the bread will be under cook) Combustion: If you burn something, then it is combustion. (If this does not happen the bread will be delicious and ready to eat)

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