Apush Decade Organizer

Knowing more than the facts is essential for success on the AP Test. This exercise will help you create thematic associations within decades. *Place the correct decade or group of years beside each group of specific factual information. Remember some items can fit into more than one decade so be sure to read through and consider the entire group. *On the chart for each Decade, write a definition or description of what each item is, how it relates to that particular decade, and what other terms could be associated with that decade. Use the following groups of years in place of decades for the Colonial period: 1600-1650, 1650-1700, and 1700-1750s After the 1750s, use normal decades 1760s, 1770s, 1780s, etc. |1. |”Long hot summers” |Marked a historic shift from the era of sit-ins and non-violent marches, of songs and prayers, to the era of ghetto rioting.

The worst outbreaks: NYC in |Additional Terms | | | |July 1964, where 1 died, 143 were injured, and 461 arrested after 6 days of fighting. LA in August 1965, Cleveland in July 1966, Newark in July 1967, |that could be | |Decade: | |Detroit July 1967. |associated with | | | | |this decade? |1960s | | | | | | | |Black Panthers, | | | | |Malcolm X, | | | | |JFK, | | | | |RFK, | | | | |Cold War | | |Freedom Summer |A highly publicized campaign in the Deep South to register blacks to vote during the summer of 1964. Thousands of civil rights activists, many white, | | | | |came to the South. Marked the climax of intensive voter-registration activities in the south that had started in 1961—focused in Mississippi. | | | |Greensboro sit-ins | Feb. 1, 1960: 4 black students from NC A&T College sat at a segregated lunch counter in the Greensboro, NC Woolworth’s store. [Counter was “whites only”| | | | |and blacks had to stand. Sat at the counter & were refused service. Helped lead to other sit-ins & boycotts during the civil rights movement. | | | |U-2 incident |May 1, 1960: An American U-2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. US government denied the plane’s purpose & mission at first, but was forced | | | | |to admit it was part of a covert surveillance team. Francis Gary Powers, the pilot, survived the crash. Led to deterioration between US-Soviet relations. | | | |Detente |Easing of strained relations, especially in a political situation.

Term often used in reference to relations between the US and Soviets—a “thawing” of | | | | |tension in the middle of the Cold War. | | |2. |”Lost generation” |Term used to characterize a general feeling of disillusionment of American literary poets/authors who lived in Europe after the WWI. Include: Ernest |Additional Terms | | | |Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ezra Pound, Sherwood Anderson, Waldo Peirce, John Dos Passos, John Steinbeck, and Cole Porter. |that could be | |Decade: | | |associated with | | | | |this decade? | | | | | |1920s | | |Calvin Coolidge, | | | | |The Shape of | | | | |Things to Come, | | | | |Stock Market | | | | |Crash | | |Warren G.

Harding |29th President of the US—1921 to 1923. Conservative Republican from Ohio. After WWI, he promised a “return to normalcy. ” | | | |Henry Ford | Founder of the Ford Motor Company and father of the modern assembly line. Opposed war, which he thought was a waste of time. Led a “Peace Ship” to the | | | | |neutral countries of Europe in 1916. During the 1920s, he owned the Dearborn Independent which was criticized as being “anti-immigrant, anti-labor, | | | | |anti-liquor, and anti-Semitic. | | |Sacco and Vanzetti |Nicola Sacco & Bartolomeo Vanzetti were Italian immigrants who were accused and convicted of murdering 2 men during a 1920 armed robbery. After a bogus | | | | |trial, they were convicted of murder. After numerous failed appeals, they were executed on August 23, 1927. Trial & execution were highly publicized. | | | |Marcus Garvey |From Jamaica. Urged African-Americans to return “home” to Africa and create their own unique & superior culture. Started the whole “Black Nationalism” | | | | |movement. | | | | |3. Agricultural Adjustment Adm. |1933. Restricted agricultural production in the New Deal Era by paying farmers to reduce crop area. Its purpose was to reduce crop surplus, |Additional Terms | | |(AAA) |thereby raising the value of crops. Act created the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, to oversee the distribution of the subsidies. First |that could be | |Decade: | |modern US farm bill. Declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in US v. Butler. |associated with | | | | |this decade? |1930s | | | | | | | | | | | | |New Deal, Dust | | | | |Bowl | | |Phoney war |Phase in early WWII that was marked by a lack of major military operations in continental Europe. Various European powers had declared war on | | | | |each other, but neither side had committed to launching a significant attack. Also known as the: Twilight War, the “sitting war,” the Bore War, | | | | |“Strange War,” and “Joke of a War. | | | |Congress of Industrial | CIO—said it had formed to encourage the AFL to organize workers in mass production industries along industrial union lines. CIO failed to | | | |Organization |change AFL policy from within. In 1938 the CIO Unions & the AFL split. | | | |Brain trust |A group of close advisors to a political candidate or incumbent; prized for their expertise in particular fields. Most associated with FDR’s | | | | |advisors during his presidency. | | | |Huey Long |40th Governor of Louisiana from 1928 to 1932 and US Senator from 1932 to 1935.

Created the “Share our Wealth” program proposing new wealth | | | |(Kingfish) |redistribution measures in the form of a net asset tax. Wanted federal spending on social reform programs, but critiqued the FED. | | | | | | | | | | |4. |Alger Hiss |Accused of being a soviet spy in 1948. Convicted of perjury in 1950. Additional Terms | | | | |that could be | |Decade: | | |associated with | | | | |this decade? | | | | | | |1940s | | |WWII | | |NSC 68 |National Security Council report which shaped American foreign policy during the Cold War. Issued in 1950.

Shifted from passive to active containment of | | | | |communism. | | | |NATO |North Atlantic Treaty Organization—an alliance among the US and the countries of Western Europe, April 4, 1949 | | | |Casablanca Conference |The Soviet success in beating back the German offense in WWII, persuaded Roosevelt to agree to a meeting with Churchill in Casablanca, Jan. 1943 | | | |Henry Wallace |Outspoken liberal, hero of the CIO, sec. of commerce (1945-1946). FDR’s VP. | | | | | | |5. |American Colonization Society |The effort to encourage the resettlement of African Americans in Africa or the Caribbean. |Additional Terms | | | | |that could be | |Decade: | | |associated with | | | | |this decade? |1820s | | | | | | | |Andrew Jackson, | | | | |veto | | |Missouri Compromise |1820. A line through new territory; area to the North was free (except for Missouri), area to the South was slave territory. Missouri was admitted | | | | |as a slave state & Maine as a free state.

Kept slave v. free-state balance. | | | |Era of Good Feelings |A time dealing with the expansion of the economy, the growth of white settlement and trade in the West, and the creation of new states. Happened | | | | |during James Monroe’s presidency. | | | |Tariff of Abominations |Tariff of 1828. Extremely high tariffs that angered farmers, and made S. C. want to secede. | | | |South |Document that protested the tariff of abominations; written by John C. Calhoun. | | |Carolina Exposition | | | | | | | | |6. |American Federation of |1886. 1 of the first labor unions in the US; founded by Samuel Gompers. Represented skilled craft workers. |Additional Terms | | |Labor | |that could be | |Decade: | | |associated with | | | | |this decade? |1880s | | | | | | | |Andrew Carnegie | | |Dawes Act |Provided for the gradual elimination of tribal ownership of land and the allotment of tracts to individual owners; 160 acres per family, 80 acres for a | | | | |single person. | | | |Alfred Thayer Mahan | Ablest and most effective apostle of imperialism. His thesis was in The Influence of Sea Power Upon History. US Navy flag officer who was “the most | | | | |important American strategist of the 19th century. | | | |Horizontal integration/|Horizontal integration = the combining of a number of firms engaged in the same enterprise into a single corporation {buying all the hamburger fast food | | | |Vertical integration |places [McDs, Wendy’s, BK] so that you can set the basic price for every hamburger} | | | | |-Vertical integration: the taking over of all the different businesses on which a company relied for its primary function. {Carnegie did this with | | | | |Standard Oil. } | | | |Haymarket Square |A strike over labor, led by radicals. Someone threw a bomb into the crowd and killed 7 officers and injured 67 people. People wanted someone to blame. | | | |Incident |Several anarchists were arrested, tried & executed. | | | | | | |7. |Baby boomers |Increase in babies in late 1950s. After WWII, a pattern of social and cultural protest emerged from younger Americans. Most baby-boomers turned out to |Additional Terms | | | |be pacifists & hippies. Led to increase in peace movement. |that could be | |Decade: | | |associated with | | | | |this decade? |1950s | | | | | | | |Nuclear safety | | | | |drills | | |Sputnik |Oct. 4, 1957. 1st satellite to be launched into space—sent up by Russia. Part of the “Space Race. ” | | | |Beat generation |Group of writers and poets who focused on rhythmical writing. Emphasized peace aspect of 1950s. Questioned conformity in American politics.

The Beatles | | | | |most recognized music group of the generation. | | | |Brown v Board of |Supreme Court decision that declared “separate, but equal” is NOT equal. Set the stage for the Civil Rights Movement. Overturned Plessy v. Ferguson , | | | |Education |Prince Edward was included in this case. Start the process of integration in public schools, leads to massive retaliation (closing schools). 1954 | | | |Julius and Ethel |Put on trial in 1951 for spying; convicted of giving US secrets (about nuclear weapons & research) to Russia. Executed in 1953.

Hubby and wifey | | | |Rosenberg | | | | | | | | |8. |bank holiday |1933. This is when you have a nation-wide holiday, called this because all banks are closed. FDR issued a proclamation to close the banks while Congress|Additional Terms | | | |held session to reform banks. Banks reopened after 4 days once the economy stabilized. |that could be | |Decade: | | |associated with | | | | |this decade? |1930s | | | | | | | |New Deal | | |National Recovery |1933. Created to help country out of the Depression (part of the New Deal). Led to start of recovery process. Created “codes of fair competition” | | | |Administration |intended to reduce “destructive competition. ” Helped to set minimum wage and maximum weekly hours. | | | |destroyer deal |1939. 43 Destroyers joined British and Canadian navies. Determined that America would side with British, even though the US was “neutral. Preparation | | | | |for WWII | | | |Scottsboro boys |March 1931. 9 black teenagers were taken off a train & arrested for vagrancy and disorder. They were then accused of raping 2 white women. Boys were | | | | |found guilty in spite of overwhelming evidence proving otherwise. 8 of them were sentenced to death (1 was too young). Eventually they were acquitted. | | | |Wagner Act |1935. Act that gave new powers to labor unions.

Set stage for conservative movement later. | | | | | | | |9. |Bank of the United |National bank. Mints money. Led to uniform set of currency, helped improve the nation’s credit. Led to 1st US Treasury. Proposed/ endorsed by Alexander |Additional Terms | | |States |Hamilton. Thomas Jefferson strongly opposed the bank, viewed it illegal and a tool for the rich and a monopoly. Jackson vetoed the re-chartering of the|that could be | |Decade: | |2nd National Bank of the US. associated with | | | | |this decade? | | | | | | |1790s | | |James Madison | | |Virginia-Kentucky |1798 & 1799. Resolutions written in secret by Jefferson (VP) & Madison. In favor of states’ rights and strict constructionism. The resolutions opposed | | | |Resolutions |the Alien & Sedition Acts enacted by Pres. John Adams.

Used the ideas of John Locke to argue that the Fed govn’t had been formed by a contract among the| | | | |states and possessed only certain delegated powers. | | | |XYZ Affair |3 French agents (X, Y, Z) wanted a bribe from the US in order to continue peace negotiations. US refused, which caused “Quasi War” with France. | | | |Whiskey Rebellion |Farmers refused to pay whiskey excise tax. Congress sent troops to PA & the rebellion collapsed. Washington led nearly 12,000 troops to stop the | | | | |rebellion, more than he had in the Revolution. | | |Jay Treaty |Settled some conflicts with Britain: British troops withdrew from Northwest Territory, averted war, increased trade, US-Canadian border was set. | | |10. |Spoils system/rotation |Helped make the right of elected officials to appoint their followers to public office. It served to limit the power of two entrenched cities. It was |Additional Terms | | |in office |embraced by Jackson. “hire your friends and fire your enemies”. |that could be | |Decade: | | |associated with | | | | |this decade? |1830s | | | | | | | |Veto | | |Bank War |Opposition to the bank came from “soft money” and “hard money”. Jackson supported the hard money. Leads to Jackson’s veto of the charter for the 2nd | | | | |national bank. | | | |Second Great Awakening | Fought the spread of religious rationalism and in the efforts of church establishments.

Individuals must readmit God and Christ into their daily lives | | | | |and embrace an active piety. | | | |Transcenden-talism |Romantic impulse in America from New England writers and philosophers about “reason” and “understanding”. Emerson, Thoreau. Abolitionist were often | | | | |Transcendentalist | | | |Gag rule |Limits or forbids discussing a topic by members of Congress. Criticized by Transcendentalists. | | | | | | |11. |Thomas Paine/ Common |Paine was a revolutionary propagandist. Common sense was a pamphlet that galvanized many Americans. Published in 1776; challenged the king & the concept |Additional Terms | | |Sense |of divine rule. |that could be | |Decade: | | |associated with | | | | |this decade? |1770s | | | | | | | |King George III | | |Battle of Saratoga |Turning point of the Revolutionary War, led to Continentals winning the war. 1777. NY | | | |Coercive/ Intolerable | 1774. Set of 5 acts: 1st 4 were Acts aimed at punishing Boston after the Boston Tea Party. Helped to unite colonies against British. 5th Act dealt with | | | |Acts |ruling French-Canadians.

Closed the port of Boston, enforced Quartering Acts, Closed local governments, and denied trials by jury. Boston gained | | | | |sympathy from other colonies. | | | |Olive Branch Petition |July 1775. Last ditch effort to avoid all-out war with England. Appealed to the king to prevent further conflict. | | | |Boston |December 1773. Companies of 50 men broke open tea chests and heaved them into the harbor, in protest of the Tea Act. | | | |Tea Party |$1 million worth of tea destroyed, led to the issuing of the

Intolerable Acts | | | | | | | |12. |Ralph Nader Unsafe at |Prominent author & attorney. Gained recognition for his book, Unsafe at any Speed, published in 1965. Book described how car manufacturers resisted |Additional Terms | | |any Speed |putting in safety features (like seatbelts) into their cars. Underlined tension in America. |that could be | |Decade: | | |associated with | | | | |this decade? |1960s | | | | | | | | | | | | |MLK Jr. | | |Bay of Pigs |2,000 armed exiles landed at the Bay of Pigs, expected 1st American air support and a spontaneous uprising by the Cuban people. Cubans fought against | | | | |them. Was a big failure. | | |Malcolm X | A former drug addict and pimp who spent time in prison and rebuilt his life after joining the Nation of Islam, while in prison, and became influential | | | | |spokesmen. Surname was Little, changes to X in symbol of his lost African name. His philosophy of the Civil Rights movement was opposite of MLK, | | | | |believing that blacks had the right to defend themselves. He did not promote violence but protection from white violence. Black Power Movement. | | | |War on Poverty |1964.

Approved LBJ’s plan of giving $1 billion to jumpstart economy. Created financial aid & unemployment. Infuriated southern whites who thought that | | | | |Johnson created it primarily to help blacks. HUD, Elementary and Secondary Education, Act, Medicare, Medicaid Created a large middle class constituency,| | | | |program also diffused the opposition of the medical community | | | |Warren Commission |Investigation into JFK’s assassination. Found that Oswald had acted alone in killing Kennedy & that there was no conspiracy. | | | |Americans believed that the reported ignored evidence of a wider conspiracy. | | |13. |Henry George Progress |A book published in 1879; nonfiction best-seller. Explained why poverty existed amidst the wealth created by modern industrialization/ the modern world. |Additional Terms | | |and Poverty | |that could be | |Decade: | | |associated with | | | | |this decade? |1870s | | | | | | | |Free Silver, | | | | |Cross of Gold | | |Bland-Allison Act |Followed the Panic of 1873. In 1877, Congress passed this act to buy some silver and add it to the US currency, each month. | | | |Thomas Nast |Newspaper cartoonist who produced satirical cartoons. He invented “Uncle Sam” and came up with the elephant and the donkey for the political parties. He | | | | |nearly brought down Boss Tweed. | | | |Munn v Illinois |Allowed states to regulate certain businesses within their borders, including railroads.

Considered a milestone in the growth of federal government | | | | |regulation. | | | |”Crime of ’73” |Value of silver had been high, so miners didn’t sell it to the US Mint. In 1873, Congress officially stopped the minting of silver. Once the value went | | | | |down, farmers/miners/poor claimed it had been a “crime” conspired by the rich. Started the “Free Silver” movement. | | |14. |Boxer Rebellion |Secret Chinese martial-arts group that fought against foreigners in China. US intervention to stop it led to support for the Open Door Policy. Additional Terms | | | | |that could be | |Decade: | | |associated with | | | | |this decade? | |1890s | | | | | | | |Open Door Policy | | |Coxey’s Army |1894. Coxey led a group of people to march on Washington to demand jobs for the unemployed. Army” ended up being turned away, and Coxey was arrested. | | | |Frederick Olmstead | Father of American landscape architecture. Designed Central Park in NYC. | | | |Teller Amendment |An amendment to McKinley’s War Message. It placed a condition on the US military in Cuba; the US could not annex Cuba but only leave “control of the | | | | |island to its people. ” | | | |Wounded Knee |Massacre of hundreds of Indians in 1890. Last great battle between Indians and US government. | | | | | | |15. |Chautauqua movement |Adult education movement in the US. Chautauqua lecture series brought entertainment and culture for the whole community, with speakers, teachers, |Additional Terms | | | |musicians, entertainers, preachers & specialists of the day. Started in NY, but spread elsewhere. |that could be | |Decade: | | |associated with | | | | |this decade? |1870s | | | | | | | |Reconstr-uction | | |Freedmen’s Bureau |1865. Congress created the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands. Acted as an early welfare agency of sorts: providing food, shelter, schools | | | | |and medical aid for those made destitute by the war (both black & white). Led by General Oliver Howard. | | | |Battle of Little | 1 of the most famous battles between whites & Indians. Whites led by Gen.

George Armstrong Custer and 264 men killed about 2500 Indian men. | | | |Bighorn | | | | |”Waving the bloody |Practice of politicians referencing the blood of martyrs/ heroes to inspire support or avoid criticism. | | | |shirt” | | | | |Boss Tweed |Boss of the local Democratic party of Tammany Hall in NYC. Masterminded dozens of schemes for helping himself and cronies to large chunks of graft.

Took | | | | |200 million from NY taxpayers. Ended up being arrested. | | |16. |Committee on Public |Organization also known as the Creel Commission which was responsible for rallying Americans around the war effort through propaganda. CPI. |Additional Terms | | |Information | |that could be | |Decade: | | |associated with | | | | |this decade? | | | | | |1910s | | | | | | | |Isolation-ism, | | | | |Neutrality | | |League of Nations |Proposed by Wilson. Organization comprised of delegates from every country to prevent future wars. The US fails to approve US participation in the League| | | | |of Nations, and the organization becomes a “watchdog without teeth” no power to prevent future wars. The failure of the League of Nations will lead to | | | | |the start of WWII. | | | |Federal Reserve System | 1913.

Created 12 regional banks, each to be owned and controlled by the individual banks. | | | |International Workers |1905. Led by Bill Haywood. Also known as the IWW or the Wobblies. Created in opposition to the American Federation of Labor (AFL). Widely believed to be | | | |of the |responsible for the dynamiting of railroad lines and power stations. | | | |World (IWW) | | | | |16th, 17th, 18th |All accomplishments of the Progressives. 16th = Income Tax. 17th = Direct election of US senators. 8th = Prohibition. | | | |Amendments |“Progressive Amendments”, 18th is repealed by the 21st amendment | | | | | | | |17. |Connecticut |Resolved the difficult problem of representation. 1 house based on equal representation per state (Senate) and 1 house based on population in the |Additional Terms | | |(Great) |state (House of Representatives). that could be | |Decade: |Compromise | |associated with | | | | |this decade? | |1780s | | | | | | | |American | | | | |Revolution | | |Virginia/New Jersey Plans |Plans proposed to set up legislation.

VA = 2 houses & 3 branches of government. NJ = 1 house with equal representation but gave Congress expanded | | | | |powers to tax and regulate Congress. | | | |Disestablishment |Process of officially separating church & state. | | | |Barbary Pirates |Pirates from N. Africa, Morocco, Algiers, Tunis & Tripoli. Demanded protection money from all nations whose ships sailed the Mediterranean. | | | |Treaty of |1783. Formally ended the American Revolutionary War between the US & England. | | |Paris | | | | | | | | |18. |”Birth of a |Griffith directed Birth of a Nation. Movie released in 1915. Promoted White supremacy and pro-KKK. First major blockbuster. |Additional Terms | | |Nation”/D. W. Griffith | |that could be | |Decade: | | |associated with | | | | |this decade? |1910s | | | | | | | |Treaty of | | | | |Versailles | | |Creel Committee |Directed by George Creel. Most conspicuous government effort to rally public support (vast propaganda). CPI—committee was in charge of propaganda for | | | | |WWI.

He depicted the US as a champion of justice & liberty. | | | |Henry Cabot Lodge | Powerful chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee. A “reservationist” who led the opposition to the ratification of Wilson’s 14 points and the Treaty| | | | |of Versailles. | | | |Article X |Part of the Treaty of Versailles that created the League of Nations. | | | |Wobblies |Radical Labor Union—Industrial Workers of the World. Target of CPI and Espionage & Sabotage Acts. Headed by Daniel Haywood. | | |19. Cult of domesticity/ |Prevailing view of womanhood among upper & middle class white women: women were supposed to embody perfect virtue; women controlled the domestic sphere |Additional Terms | | |True womanhood |and were expected to fulfill the roles of a calm and nurturing mother, a loving and faithful wife, and a passive, delicate, and virtuous creature. Women |that could be | |Decade: | |should also be pious and religious. |associated with | | | |4 virtues: Piety, Purity, Submission, Domesticity. |this decade? | |1840s | | | | | | | |Susan B.

Anthony,| | | | |William Lloyd | | | | |Garrison | | |Manifest Destiny |“Sea to shining sea. ” To take over the continent from the Atlantic to the Pacific. | | | |James K. Polk | Polk shared the dream of Texans and Californians, and wanted to acquire New Mexico, Texas, and California. He quietly sent troops to do this. Mexico | | | | |revolted, and the U. S. went to war. The U. S. ended up winning that war, and owed Mexico $12 millions dollars. The U. S. also promised, that if Mexico owed| | | | |anyone in the U. S. money, that the government would take care of it. | | |Neal Dow |“Napoleon of Temperance”/ “Father of Prohibition. ” Mayor of Maine. | | | |Lucretia Mott |Organized a convention in Seneca Falls, New York, to discuss the questions of woman’s rights. | | |20. |Dred Scott v Sandford |A Missouri slave sued for his freedom, claiming that his 4-yr. stay in the northern portion of the LA territory, made free land by the Missouri |Additional Terms | | | |Compromise, had made him a free man. The US Supreme Court decided he couldn’t sue in federal court, because he was property—not a citizen. that could be | |Decade: | | |associated with | | | | |this decade? | |1850s | | | | | | | |John Brown’s Raid| | | | |(Harper’s Ferry) | | |Fugitive Slave Law |A law making it a crime to help runaway slaves. If caught, could face up to 6 months in prison and a $1000 fine.

Commissioners/ Bounty hunters got $10 | | | | |for capturing the right slave and $5 for the wrong slave. | | | |Gadsden Purchase |The purchasing of land from Mexico that completed the continental US. It provided the land needed to build the transcontinental railroad. | | | |Bleeding Kansas |Kansas Border War. Following the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, pro-slavery forces from Missouri (“Border Ruffians”) crossed the border in Kansas | | | | |and terrorized and murdered antislavery settlers.

Antislavery sympathizers from Kansas carried out reciprocal attacks, the most notorious of which was | | | | |John Brown’s 1856 attack on Pottawatomie Creek. The war continued for 4 years before the antislavery forces won. The violence it generated helped | | | | |precipitate the Civil War. | | | |Sumner-Brooks Affair |Brooks beat Sumner over the head with his cane, severely crippling him, after Sumner had given an offensive speech, on the Senate floor. [Sumner became a| | | | |hero in the North; Brooks became a hero in the South. | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |21. |Emancipation |Lincoln publically announced that he would issue this document freeing all enslaved persons in the rebellious states after January 1, 1863. It made the |Additional Terms | | |Proclamation |abolition of slavery a northern war aim. It didn’t free a single slave. |that could be | |Decade: | | |associated with | | | | |this decade? |1860s | | | | | | | |Gettys-burg | | |Trent Affair |In 1861, the Confederacy sent emissaries, James Mason to Britain and John Slidell to France, to lobby for recognition. A Union ship captured both men and| | | | |took them to Boston as prisoners. The British were angry and Lincoln ordered their release. | | | |Homestead Act | Passed in 1862. It gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for 5 years and make small improvements. Most who tried failed. | | |Battle of Antietam |Civil War battle in which the North succeeded in halting Lee’s confederate forces in MD. Was the bloodiest battle of the war, resulting in 25,000 | | | | |casualties. | | | |Crittenden Compromise |A desperate measure to prevent the Civil War: offering a constitutional amendment recognizing slavery in the territories south of the 36030’ line, | | | | |non-interference by Congress with existing slavery, and compensation to the owners of fugitive slaves.

Republicans, on the advice of Lincoln, defeated | | | | |it. | | |22. |Washington Naval |An attempt to prevent what was threatening and destabilizing the Naval armistice race between Japan, Britain & America. Kept peace through the 1920s. |Additional Terms | | |Conference |First disarmament conference in history. |that could be | |Decade: | | |associated with | | | | |this decade? |1920s | | | | | | | |Flappers | | |Cultural isolation |The idea of cutting yourself off from other cultures and nations. | | | |Quota system | Tried to limit and/or slow the flood of immigrants entering the US. | | | |Harlem Renaissance |A new generation of black artists and intellectuals created from a flourishing African-American culture in the 1920s. | | | |F.

Scott Fitzgerald |Wrote The Great Gatsby which ridiculed American obsession with material success. | | |23. |Japanese interment |Japanese-Americans were put into internment camps during WWII, for fear they were spies. |Additional Terms | | | | |that could be | |Decade: | | |associated with | | | | |this decade? |1940s | | | | | | | |NSC-68 | | |Fair Deal |Called for expansion of Social Security benefits raising the legal minimum wage from 42 ? to 65 ? per hour programs to ensure full employment. | | | |Truman Doctrine |Cold War strategy of containment of Communism & the Soviet Union. | | | |Yalta Conference |In return for Stalin’s renewal an agreement to enter Pacific war Roosevelt agreed the Soviet Union should receive some lost territories in the Pacific. | | | |Taft-Hartley Act |Made it legal the so-called close shop where you cant be hired unless first being a member of the union. | | | | | | |24. |Fair Labor Standards |For the first time established a national minimum wage and a 40 hr. work week also placed strict limits on child labor. |Additional Terms | | |Act | |that could be | |Decade: | | |associated with | | | | |this decade? |1930s | | | | | | | |20th Amend-ment | | |New Deal |Created by FDR; changed the role of the government to a more active participant in solving problems'(FDIC and social security). | | | |Bonus March/ Bonus Army| Veterans of WWI- marched into Washington and promised to stay until congress approved legislation to pay the bonus promised to the veterans. | | | |21st Amendment |Legalized the manufacturing and selling of beer with a 3. 2% alcohol content; repealed the 18th Amendment. | | |Dole |Federally-supported programs and/or federal assistance for the American people; Medicare, Medicaid, Social Security. | | |25. |Montgomery bus boycott |Developed by a black women’s political caucus that used Rosa Parks as a symbol to get segregation in public transportation outlawed |Additional Terms | | | | |that could be | |Decade: | | |associated with | | | | |this decade? |1950s | | | | | | | |Rosa Parks | | |Federal Highway Act |During the Eisenhower administration; authorized $25 billion for a ten year project that built over 40,000 miles of interstate highways | | | |Eisenhower Doctrine | Stated a country could request economic or military aid from America if being threatened by another country | | | |Korean War |Began in 1950 when communist North Korea invaded the pro-western half of the Korean peninsula to the south | | | |Alan Ginsberg The Howl |Dark, bitter poem decried the “Robot apartments, invincible suburbs, blind capitals, and demonic industries” of modern life | | |26. |Lincoln-Douglas debates|A series of 7 debates.

The 2 argued the important issues of the day like popular sovereignty, the Lecompton Constitution and the Dred Scott decision. |Additional Terms | | | |Douglas won these debates, but Lincoln’s position in these debates helped him win the 1860 presidential election (helped Lincoln get national notoriety). |that could be | |Decade: | | |associated with | | | | |this decade? | |1850s | | | | | | |States’ Rights | | |Clayton-Bulwer Treaty |Treaty between the US and the UK, negotiated in 1850 in consequence of the situation created by the Nicaragua Canal; each signatory being jealous of the | | | | |activities of the other in Central America. Treaty terms: neutralization of the canal and neither country would try and obtain exclusive control of the | | | | |canal. | | | |Freeport Doctrine |Doctrine developed by Stephen Douglas that said the exclusion of slavery in a territory could be determined by the refusal of the voters to enact any | | | | |laws that would protect slave property. It was unpopular with Southerners, and thus cost him the election. | | |Uncle Tom’s Cabin |A novel published by Harriet Beecher Stowe in 1852 which portrayed/ exposed slavery as brutal and immoral. | | | |Nashville Convention |Political meeting held in Nashville, TN on June 3 – 11, 1850. Delegates from 9 slave holding states met to consider a possible course of action if the US| | | | |Congress decided to ban slavery in the new territories being added to the country. The compromises worked out in Nashville paved the way for the | | | | |Compromise of 1850, and for a time, avoided Civil War. | | | | | | |27. |French and Indian War |Was fought between the British and the French. It reshaped the map of Colonial North America. Ended by the Treaty of Paris in 1763—British got land east |Additional Terms | | | |of the Mississippi. |that could be | |Decade: | | |associated with | | | | |this decade? |1750s | | | | | | | |Seven Years War | | |Albany Plan |A conference of colonial leaders in Albany to negotiate a treaty with the Iroquois. 1st attempt to unite colonies with a single goal. Didn’t work though;| | | | |Albany Plan was not ratified. | | | |Mercantilism | A “mother country” exploits her colonies.

Colonies supply raw goods and buy manufactured products. Enhanced the position of the new merchant | | | | |capitalists. | | | |Salutary neglect |Practice of England to “neglect” the colonies, which allowed colonial self-government. When England/ George III tried to regain control, colonies wanted | | | | |to rebel (not yet have a full out war though). | | | |William Pitt (the |General who led British during French & Indian Wars; later became Prime Minister of England.

Who Pittsburg was named after. | | | |Elder) | | | |28. |”Back to Africa |Also known as the Colonization movement. Encouraged African-Americans to return “home” to Africa. |Additional Terms | | |movement” | |that could be | |Decade: | | |associated with | | | | |this decade? |1920s | | | | | | | |Fascism, Jazz | | |Georgia O’Keeffe |Influential American artist who challenged the boundaries of modern American artistic style. | | | |Edward Hopper | Explored the starkness and loneliness of the modern city in his paintings. | | | |Normalcy |Warren G. Harding pledged “a return to normalcy” in the election of 1920. Normalcy = pre-WWI values. | | |Albert Fall |New Mexico senator, made Secretary of the Interior under Harding; infamous for involvement in the Teapot Dome Scandal (political corruption, bribery). | | |29. |Hinton Helper |Southern US critic of slavery during the 1850s. In 1857, The Impending Crisis of the South, which he dedicated to the “nonslaveholding whites” of the |Additional Terms | | |/Impending Crisis |South, was published. Argued that slavery hurt the economic prospects of non-slaveholders and was an impediment to the growth of the entire region of the|that could be | |Decade: | |South. Reprinted in 1859 by Northern opponents of slavery. associated with | | | | |this decade? | |1850s | | | | | | | |John C. Calhoun | | |Stephen Douglas |A moderate, who introduced the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854, and popularized the idea of popular sovereignty. Lost to Lincoln in 1860. | | | |Popular sovereignty |The doctrine that stated that the people of a territory had the right to decide their own laws by voting. In the Kansas-Nebraska Act, this would ecide | | | | |whether a territory allowed slavery or not. | | | |Ostend Manifesto |The recommendation that the US offer Spain $20 million for Cuba. It was not carried through in part because the North feared Cuba would become another | | | | |slave state. | | | |Lecompton |The pro-slavery constitution suggested for Kansas’ admission to the union supporting the existence of slavery in the proposed state and protected rights | | | |Constitution |of slaveholders. It was rejected by Kansas, making Kansas an eventual free state. | | | | | | |30. |Elijah Mohammad (Black |African-American Muslim activist, religious leader, and leader of the Nation of Islam. Mentor of both Malcolm X and Muhammad Ali. |Additional Terms | | |Muslims) | |that could be | |Decade: | | |associated with | | | | |this decade? |1930s | | | | | | | | | | | | |Herbert Hoover, | | | | |FDR | | |America First Committee|Foremost non-interventionist pressure group against American entry into WWII. [Largest anti-war group in US history. ] Became defunct after Pearl Harbor | | | | |attack. | | | |Hundred days | The first 100 days of FDR’s presidency. FDR met with Congress every day and they granted every request in an attempt to get out of the Depression. | | | | |Standard now by which other presidents are judged. | | | |Keynesian economics |Based on the ideas of economist John Keynes. Argues that government should help regulate private companies, to prevent economic failure. | | |National Labor |Passed in 1935 to protect the rights of employees and employers, encourage collective bargaining, and to cut down on bad labor & management practices | | | |Relations Act |(which could harm workers, businesses & the US economy). | | |31. |Charles and Mary Beard |Famous historians from the 20th century. Wrote that the founding fathers were driven by economic issues rather than political philosophies. |Additional Terms | | | | |that could be | |Decade: | | |associated with | | | | |this decade? | | | | | |1900 | | | | | | | |John Hay | | |”good and bad” trusts |Square deal outlined these different types of trusts: leave the good ones alone & go after/ break up the bad ones. | | | |Insular Cases |Determined that inhabitants of the US territories had some, but not all, of the rights of US citizens. | | | |Great White Fleet |1907 – 1909. Roosevelt sent the Navy on a world tour to show the world the US naval power. Also to pressure Japan into the “Gentlemen’s Agreement. | | | |Square Deal |TR’s domestic program formed upon 3 basic ideas: conservation of natural resources, control of corporations, and consumer protection. | | |32. |San Francisco |1945. 50 countries met to draw up the United Nations charter. UN officially came into existence on Oct. 21, 1945. |Additional Terms | | |Conference | |that could be | |Decade: | | |associated with | | | | |this decade? |1940s | | | | | | | |Adolf Hitler | | |Marshall Plan |European Recovery Program; US policy to lend money to war-torn countries of Europe to help rebuild after WWII. Effort to contain communism. | | | |Berlin Airlift |Soviets had caused a blockade, which stopped supplies & electricity to West Berlin. US sent troops (“Operation Vittles”) to airlift supplied to the | | | | |people in West Berlin. | | |GI Bill of Rights |Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944. Bill proviced college or vocational education for returning WWII vets (“GIs”) as well as one year of unemployment | | | | |compensation. Also allows for loans. | | | |Jackie Robinson |First African-American major league baseball player of the modern era; played for the Brooklyn Dogers in 1947. | | | | | | | |33. |Samuel “Golden Rule” |Progressive Era Mayor from Ohio. Advocated the “Golden Rule” in politics: treat others as you would like to be treated. Additional Terms | | |Jones | |that could be | |Decade: | | |associated with | | | | |this decade? | |1900 – 1910 | | | | | | | | | | | | |Nativism | | |Northern Securities |Northern Securities Company was a railroad trust formed in 1902. Sued in 1902, under the Sherman Antitrust Act, by President TR.

Company was dissolved in| | | |Case |1904 based on Supreme Court ruling that they were guilty of creating a monopoly. | | | |Jacob Riis | Danish American social reformer, muckraking journalists & photography. Wrote How the Other Half Lives—depicted stark, deplorable conditions that | | | | |immigrants lived in (tenement houses). | | | |Muller v Oregon |Supreme Court upheld Oregon laws limiting work hours for women and labor laws. | | | |Robert Lafollette |“Fighting Bob. ” Progressive Wisconsin Governor and Senator.

Passed progressive legislation in Wisconsin: referendum, initiative, direct primaries. | | |34 |Roe v Wade |Supreme Court upheld that a woman’s right to an abortion is determined by her current trimester of pregnancy: 1st = unrestricted, 2nd = only regulate for|Additional Terms | | | |maternal health, 3rd = state can choose to restrict or use abortion as it sees fit. |that could be | |Decade: | | |associated with | | | | |this decade? |1970s | | | | | | | | | | | | |Camp David | | | | |Accords | | |Jimmy Carter |Governor of GA & 39th President of the US (1977 – 1981). As President: created Departments of Energy & Education, conservationist energy policy, pursued | | | | |the Camp David Accords, Panama Canal Treaties, SALT talks with Russia. | | | |Watergate |Scandal that drove Nixon to resign. Resulted from the break-in into the Democratic National Committee headquarters. Several Nixon advisors/officials were| | | | |indicted and convicted. Ford gave Nixon a full pardon. | | |affirmative action |Policies that take race, ethnicity, disabilities & gender into consideration for admission/ acceptance into employment, education or health programs. | | | |Gerald Ford |38th President of the US (1974 – 1977). First person to become VP & President without being elected—25th amendment. Incited public opinion because he | | | | |granted Nixon a full pardon. | | |35. |DeTocquevilie/Democracy|French political thinker who wrote Democracy in America, after traveling through America. Explored the effects of the rising equality of social |Additional Terms | | |in America |conditions on the individual and the state in western societies. that could be | |Decade: | | |associated with | | | | |this decade? | |1830s | | | | | | | |Andrew Jackson | | |Charles River Bridge |Supreme Court settled a dispute over the constitutional clause regarding obligation of contract.

State charters to company did not imply exclusive | | | |case |rights. | | | |removal of | Part of President Andrew Jackson’s plan to get rid of the 2nd National Bank of the US. Jackson removed federal money from the National Bank and put it | | | |deposits |into state banks. | | | |abolitionists |People who wanted to end slavery. William Lloyd Garrison, Frederick Douglass, Harriet Beecher Stowe. | | | |John C. Calhoun |Jackson’s VP and proud South Carolinian. Outspoken against tariffs. Caused the Nullification Crisis (S. C. due to protesting the “Tariff of abomination” | | | | |(1728 Tariff). Resigned from office after falling out with Jackson. | | | | | | | |36. |Kellogg-Briand Pact |Also called the Pact of Paris. Multinational treaty that prohibited the use of war as “an instrument of national policy” except in matters of |Additional Terms | | | |self-defense. It was a result of the American effort to avoid involvement in the European alliance system. that could be | |Decade: | | |associated with | | | | |this decade? | |1920s | | | | | | | |19th Amend-ment | | |Herbert Hoover |31st President of the US. Blamed for the Great Depression—the stock market crashed 8 months after he took office. Hoovervilles” sprang up—shanty tents/ | | | | |towns formed during the Depression. | | | |H. L. Mencken |American journalist. “Sage of Baltimore. ” Regarded as one of the most influential American writers of the 1st half of the 20th century. The American | | | | |Language—study on how the English language is spoken in the US. Reported on the Scopes trial, which he named the “Monkey” trial. | | | |Charles Lindbergh |American aviator, author, inventor & social activist. Flew the 1st solo non-stop flight (from NY to Paris) across the Atlantic.

Son was kidnapped & | | | | |killed in the “crime of the century. ” | | | |Scopes trial |“Monkey Trial. ” Case tested the Butler Act (Tennesee law) which made it unlawful to teach anything that went against Creation. William Jennings Bryan was| | | | |the prosecutor, Clarence Darrow defended the Scopes. Scopes was found guilty, but on appeal the Tennessee Supreme Court overturned the verdict due to a | | | | |technicality. | |37. |Republican party/ 3rd |One of the 2 major political parties. It emerged in the 1850s as an anti-slavery party and consisted of former northern Whigs and anti-slavery |Additional Terms | | |Amer. Party System |Democrats. 3rd American Party System = 1854 – mid 1890s that involved nationalism, modernization and race. |that could be | |Decade: | | |associated with | | | | |this decade? |1850s | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Bleeding Kansas, | | | | |Free States | | |Know Nothing/ American |They had strong anti-immigrant views and anti-Catholic feelings. When asked about the organization, members were supposed to reply that they knew | | | |Party |nothing, hence the name. | | | |Kansas-Nebraska Act |This act set up Kansas and Nebraska as states. Each state would use popular sovereignty to decide what to do about slavery.

People who were pro-slavery | | | | |and anti-slavery moved to Kansas, but some anti-slavery settlers were against the Act. This began “Bloody/ Bleeding Kansas. ” | | | |Antebellum |“Pre-War. ” Refers to pre-Civil War America, especially the culture of the South. | | | |Underground Railroad |Informal network of secret routes and safe houses used by the 19th century slaves in the US to escape to free states and Canada with the aid of | | | | |abolitionists who were sympathetic to their cause. | |38. |National Origins Act |Federal law that limited the number of immigrants who could be admitted from any country to 2% of the number of people from that country who were already|Additional Terms | | | |living in the US in 1890. It excluded immigration of Asians & tried to further restrict the Southern and Eastern Europeans. |that could be | |Decade: | | |associated with | | | | |this decade? |1920s | | | | | | | |Immigr-ation Act | | | | |of 1921 | | |Langston Hughes |American poet, novelist/ writer. 1 of the earliest innovators of jazz poetry. Worked during the Harlem Renaissance. | | | |Andrew Mellon | American banker, industrialist & philanthropist.

Secretary of the Treasury under Warren G. Harding, Coolidge & Hoover. Tried to reduce the federal debt | | | | |from WWI. Became unpopular during the Great Depression, because he wanted to keep the budget balanced and limit federal spending. | | | |Ku Klux Klan |Formerly known as “The Klan. ” The 2nd KKK grew rapidly after 1921. Preached racism, anti-Catholicism, anti-Communism, nativism and anti-Semitism. At its | | | | |peak, it claimed to have about 4-5 million members. Conducted violent attacks in the South. | | |Calvin Coolidge |30th President of the US. Tried to restore public confidence in the White House after Harding’s scandal. Critcized for his laissez-faire government. | | | | | | | |39. |Gabriel Prosser’s |Literate slave who planned to lead a large slave rebellion in Richmond in 1800. Plan got out and rebellion failed. Prosser & 25 other men who plotted the|Additional Terms | | |Rebellion |rebellion were hanged. In reaction, VA passed restrictions on free blacks, as well as the education, movement and hiring out of slaves. that could be | |Decade: | | |associated with | | | | |this decade? | |1800 – 1810 | | | | | | | |Election of 1800 | | |yeomen farmers |A farmer who cultivates his own land. | | | |Orders in Council | Issued by England in 1807. It forbade French trade with the UK, her allies or neutrals, and started a blockade of French & Allied ports. 1 of the causes| | | | |of the War of 1812. | | |Lewis and Clark |Hired by President TJ to explore the newly purchase Louisiana Territory. Guided by Sacagawea. | | | |Judicial Review |Legislative & executive actions are subject to review, and possible invalidation, by the judiciary. Doctrine established by Marbury v. Madison. | | |40. |Little Rock school |9 black students (Little Rock 9) were initially prevented from entering the racially segregated school by Arkansas Governor. President Eisenhower had to |Additional Terms | | |crisis |intervene to allow them to attend school. |that could be | |Decade: | |associated with | | | | |this decade? | |1950s | | | | | | | |Eisenhow-er | | |National Defense |1958. Provided funding to US education institutions at all levels. Passed during the “Space Race. ” Act urged students to go to college and improve | | | |Education Act |knowledge in science [we were behind the USSR in that aspect]. | | |dynamic conservatism | Eisenhower’s economic philosophy which favored a continuation of the chief New Deal programs combined with an attempt to move the federal government out| | | | |of some areas. “Conservative when it came to money and liberal when it comes to human beings. ” Cut spending for New Deal programs. | | | |Jack Kerouac On the |Considered a pioneer of the beat generation. Writer known for his spontaneous style and for dealing with “hot topics” (jazz, promiscuity, Buddhism, | | | |Road |drugs, poverty, travel). On the Road was published in 1957 and is his most famous novel. | | |41. |loose/strict |Philosophy of interpreting the US Constitution. Additional Terms | | |constructionism |Loose = If the constitution does not specifically mention it/ say you can’t do it, then you can do whatever you want. Alexander Hamilton. |that could be | |Decade: | |Strict = Follow exactly what was stated and allowed in the constitution. Thomas Jefferson. |associated with | | | | |this decade? | |1790s | | | | | | | Alexander | | | | |Hamilton | | |cotton gin/Eli Whitney |Invention of the cotton gin made cleaning* cotton faster and easier. Increased the demand for slaves in the south, due to the increase in cotton | | | | |production. Whitney also invented the interchangeable rifle. | | | |Citizen Genet | French ambassador to the US during the French Revolution. Citizen Genet Affair: in 1793 he was sent to the US to promote American support for France’s | | | | |wars with Spain & Britain. After gaining individual support in S. C. President Washington denounced his actions, because they threatened US neutrality. | | | | |Genet continued to defy Washington’s orders. He ended up being given asylum in the US, to escape from France. | | | |Bill of Rights |1st 10 Amendments to the Constitution. Introduced by Madison. Came into effect in 1791. Anti-federalists insisted on a bill of rights to protect them (& | | | | |states’ rights) from the federal government before they would agree to ratify the Constitution. TJ was a supporter of the Bill of Rights. | | | |Alien and Sedition Acts|1798.

Passed by the Federalists during the “Quasi-War” with France. Supposed to protct the US from alien citizens of enemy powers and to prevent | | | | |sedituious attacks from weakening the government. Was a major issue in the 1798 & 1800 elections. It essentially limited freedom of speech and allowed | | | | |for deportation of aliens if needed. | | | | | | | |42. |Marbury v Madison |Judicial Review.

William Marbury, one of Adams’ “Midnight Appointment” had been named justice of the peace in DC. But his commission, although signed |Additional Terms | | | |and sealed, had not been delivered to him before Adams left office. Once Jefferson became president, the new secretary of state, James Madison, was |that could be | |Decade: | |responsible for transmitting appointments. He refused to hand over the commission to Marbury. He appealed to the Supreme Court & lost. |associated with | | | | |this decade? |1800 – 1810 | | | | | | | | | | | | |Sacagawea | | |Embargo Act |In an effort to prevent future incidents that might bring the nation again to the brink of war Jefferson presented a drastic measure. It became one of | | | | |the most controversial political issues of its time. It prohibited American ships from leaving the U. S for any foreign port anywhere.

Congress also | | | | |passed a “force act” to give the gov’t power to enforce it. | | | |Louisiana Purchase |Doubled the size of the US overnight. Questions about constitutionality. Napoleon proposed; Livingston and James Monroe were sent to negotiate. Fearful | | | | |that Napoleon would withdrawal the offer, they decided to proceed without further instructions. They signed the agreement on April 30, 1803. | | | |impressments |The British navy was known as a “floating hell” to its sailors. Few volunteered. Most were “impressed” (forced) in the service.

Most deserted at every| | | | |opportunity. 1 of the reasons we got involved in the war of 1812. | | | |interchangeable parts |Eli Whitney’s concept. A gun that didn’t have to be reloaded for every shot; inspired Henry Ford’s assembly line. | | |43. |Universal Negro |Launched a chain of black owned grocery stores and pressed for the creation of other black owned businesses. It became notable for its mass rallies |Additional Terms | | |Improvement |and parades, for the opulent uniforms, and for the growth of its enterprises. that could be | |Decade: |Association | |associated with | | | | |this decade? | |1920s | | | | | | | | | | | | |Warren G.

Harding| | |Teapot Dome/ Elk Hills |The most spectacular scandal of fraud and corruption involving rich naval oil reserves at Teapot Dome, Wyoming and Elk Hills, California. Happened | | | |Scandals |during Harding’s presidency. | | | |Thomas Hart Benton | Painted everyday scenes of life in the US, especially out West—part of the Regionalist art movement. | | | |Margaret Sanger |American birth control activist, advocate of eugenics, and founder of the American Birth Control League. | | | |”Spirit of St. Louis” |Lindbergh’s plane that he flew in the 1st non-stop flight across the Atlantic. | | | | | | |44. |Huey Newton (Black |Founded the Black Panther Party and promised to defend black rights even if that required violence. They organized along semi military lines and wore |Additional Terms | | |Panthers) |weapons openly and proud |that could be | |Decade: | | |associated with | | | | |this decade? |1960s | | | | | | | | | | | | |LBJ | | |Miranda v Arizona |Court confirmed the obligation of authorities to inform a criminal suspect of his or her rights; remain silent, have an attorney, don’t be a witness | | | | |against yourself. | | | |John F.

Kennedy (New | New Frontier was used in his speech and became the name for his administration’s domestic ; foreign programs. “Frontier of unfulfilled hopes and dreams,| | | |Frontier) |of unknown opportunities and beliefs in peril. Beyond the frontier are unchartered areas of science and space, unsolved problems of peace and war, | | | | |unconquered problems of ignorance and prejudice, unanswered questions of poverty and surplus. ” Fair Labor Standards Act, Housing Bill of 1961, Mental | | | | |Retardation Facilities Act. | | |Michael Harrington The |American democratic socialist, writer, and political activist. Founder of the Democratic Socialists of America. The Other America: Poverty in the US | | | |Other America |impacted Kennedy’s administration and LBJ’s War on Poverty. | | | |Cuban Missile Crisis |On Oct. 14, aerial photos showed clear evidence that the Soviets were constructing sites in Cuba for offensive nuclear weapons. Threat of nuclear war for| | | | |13 days, until Soviets backed down and removed missiles from Cuba. | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |45. “forty acres and a |Practice in 1865 of providing arable land to former black slaves who became free as Union armies occupied areas of the Confederacy, especially in |Additional Terms | | |mule” |Sherman’s March. Was recognizes as providing a sound start to a family farm. |that could be | |Decade: | | |associated with | | | | |this decade? | |1860s | | | | | | | | | | | |Civil War, John | | | | |Wilkes Booth | | |National Labor Union |Was the first national labor federation in the US. Founded in 1866, it paved the way for other organizations. Led by William Sylvis. Included a variety | | | | |of reform groups having little direct relationship with labor. | | | |Molly Maguires |A militant labor organization in the anthracite coal region of PA. Operated within the Ancient Order of Hiberians—an Irish fraternal society, and | | | | |sometimes used terrorist attacks.

Attempted to intimidate the coal operators through violence and occasionally murder, and they added to the growing | | | | |perception that labor activism was motivated by dangerous radicals. However, much of the violence attributed to them was instigated or performed by | | | | |informers and agents employed by the mine owners, in an attempt to suppress the unions. | | | |crop lien system |A credit system that became widely used by farmers in the South from the 1860s to the 1920s. Farmers got credit before the planting season by borrowing | | | | |against the value for anticipated harvests. Used by land owners, sharecroppers and tenant farmers. | | |Granger Laws |Series of laws passed in western states of the US after the Civil War to regulate grain elevator and railroad freight rates and rebates and to address | | | | |long ; short-haul discrimination and other railroad abuses against farmers. | | |46. |Lowell/ |A labor and production model employed in the US, particularly in New England, during the early years of the American textile industry. Mill girls: lived |Additional Terms | | |Waltham System /Lowell |a regimented life, strict hours, and rigid moral code. Relied on young, unmarried women for labor. |that could be | |Decade: |girls | |associated with | | | | |this decade? |1820s | | | | | | | | | | | | |Temper-ence | | | | |Movement | | |Erie Canal |Waterway in NY. Built from 1817 to 1825. 1st transportation system between the east coast and the western interior; cut transport costs by 95%. At the | | | | |time, it was the greatest construction project the US had undertaken. | | | |corrupt bargain | Election of 1824. No candidate won enough electoral votes, so the House of Representatives decided who’d be president. The House elected John Q. Adams | | | | |over Andrew Jackson. Henry Clay, who was Speaker of the House, became Adams’ Sec. of State.

Supporters of Jackson claimed the outcome had been rigged. | | | |Monroe Doctrine |Policy introduced on December 2, 1823. Stated that further efforts by European countries to colonize land or interfere with states in the Americas would | | | | |be viewed by the US as an act of aggression requiring US intervention. “Stay out of our area ; we’ll stay out of yours. ” | | | |Gibbons v Ogden |Case in which the Supreme Court held that the power to regulate interstate commerce was granted to Congress by the Commerce Clause of the US | | | |Constitution. | | |47. |Morrill Land Grant Act |Allowed for the creation of land-grant colleges. 1862. Federal government gave land to states for the creation of state colleges. |Additional Terms | | | | |that could be | |Decade: | | |associated with | | | | |this decade? |1860s | | | | | | | | | | | | |Radical | | | | |Republ-icans | | |National Banking Act |1863. Established a system of national charters for US national banks. Encouraged development of a national currency based on bank holdings of US bank | | | | |notes. This Act, along with “Greenbacks,” raised money for the federal government during the Civil War. | | |nature of the union | Lincoln’s understanding: Secession was illegal | | | | |South’s understanding: They had freely joined the union, and could freely leave. | | | |13th,14th,15th |Civil War/ Reconstruction Amendments. 13th = Abolish slavery. 14th = Blacks are now citizens, Due Process. 15th = Black men are given the right to vote. | | | |amendments | | | | |radical |Reconstruction efforst led by Radical Republicans. 867 = passed the 1st ; 2nd Reconstruction Acts and the Tenure of Office Act. 1868 = Impeach Andrew | | | |reconstruction |Johnson, but he is aquitted. 14th Amendment is passed. 1870 = 15th Amendment is ratified. | | | | | | | |48. |Federal Deposit |Created by the Glass-Steagall Act of 1933, to provide deposit insurance, which guarantees the safety of deposits in member banks. People get their |Additional Terms | | |Insurance Corp (FDIC) |money back if the bank is insured when it fails. that could be | |Decade: | | |associated with | | | | |this decade? | |1930s | | | | | | | |Relief, | | | | |Recovery, | | | | |Reform | | |National Industrial |Act of June 16, 1933.

Authorized the President to regulate industry and permit cartels and monopolies in an attempt to stimulate economic recovery, and | | | |Recovery Act |it established a national public works program. | | | |TVA (Tennessee Valley | Federally owned corporation created to provide navigation, flood control, electricity generation, fertilizer manufacturing and economic development in | | | |Authority |the Tennessee Valley—which was hit hard by the Depression. | | | |Franklin Roosevelt |Only man elected President 4 times. Served during the Great Depression through WWII.

Created the New Deal Program to get the US out of the Depression. | | | |Bonus march/ Bonus Army |43,000 marchers (17,000 WWI vets, their families ; affiliated groups) protested in D. C. in the spring and summer of 1932. Led by Walter Waters. Veterans| | | | |demanded immediate cash-payment redemption of their service certificates given to them 8 years earlier. Certificates couldn’t be redeemed until 1945. | | | | |President Hoover ordered the military to kick them out of D. C. Congress overrode a veto to grant the money to the vets in 1936. | | | | | | |49. |Populist (People’s |Political party organized in 1891 and was supported by farmers in the west. They favored bi-metalism (using both silver and gold currency. William |Additional Terms | | |Party) |Jennings Bryant was the populist presidential candidate in the 1886. |that could be | |Decade: | | |associated with | | | | |this decade? |1890s | | | | | |new immigrants |Included people from various regions of the world, were different from earlier “old immigrants” who came from northern Europe, new immigrants came from | | | | |Southern and Eastern Europe Russia, Poland, Italy, Greece, etc. and also parts of Asia. New immigrants also represented different religious backgrounds, | | | | |Jewish and Catholics, than previous immigrants. They usually had little job skills or education. They were highly discriminated against because of their| | | | |cultural differences and fears that they would take jobs from native born Americans

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